I taught at the Universities of Edinburgh (2001-2002), Bristol (2002-2003) and Lancaster University, first in the Department of European Languages and Cultures (2003-2010) and then in the Department of History (2010-2016), before being appointed at Keele University in 2016.

Research and scholarship

My profile is

I am currently working on three projects:

Fascist Rome (1922-43). This project, which combines urban, cultural and intellectual history, examines the way in which Fascism attempted to re-create 'space' and symbolism in Rome with a view to transforming the city as a statement of its universal(ist) project - in other words, as the symbolic 'sacred' space of a universal fascist 'political religion'. It analyses the Fascist regime's universalist intentions (placed in a wider framework of urbanistic debates, both inside Italy and across Europe/ the world) and examines the extent to which they were translated into practice in the two decades of Fascist rule.Research for the project has been funded by the British Academy (2007-08). A research monograph (titled Rome, 1922-43: the making of the fascist capital)is expected to be published in 2012 (Palgrave Macmillan).

Fascism, 'fascist regime', and 'para-fascism'. This project has evolved in the context of a partnership of thirteen international scholars, with two research workshops organised by Antonio Costa Pinto and myself in Lisbon (October 2009, February 2011). We are currently editing a collective volume that deals with the dynamics of the diffusion (and adaptation) of ‘fascist’ ideas and practices (pioneered in Fascist Italy and/or National Socialist Germany) across Europe during the 1920s/1930s; and the complex hybridisation that occurred at the time between fascist regimes and authoritarian dictatorships. Publication of this volume (to which I will also contribute a detailed, comparative theoretical chapter) is expected in late 2012.

Authority, 'licence', and 'spaces of violence': on the dynamics of transgressive mass violence. This research project intends to provide new insights into how mass murderous violence is facilitated, unleashed, and diffused in a particular environment as a dynamic, poly-centric process. It starts from the premise that resort to extra-ordinary violence is a transgressive act that (i) becomes possible in the wake of a special derogation of ethical, cultural, and/ or legal norms; and (ii) usually produces the momentum for further, more profound trangressive behaviour, based on a combination of authorisation, empowerment, and initiative. The project focuses on the overarching mechanisms that legitimise and precipitate the discharge of violence as both collective and individual, hierarchical and spontaneous undertaking. At the heart of this analysis lies the concept of licence as the critical facilitator and precipitant of violence. In this context of this research licence refers to a mandate, derogation or dispensation that generates (and then contributes to) a habitat of violence - a specific milieu of extreme empowerment and diminished accountability for violence against other humans of a kind that, in 'normal' circumstances, would be proscribed.

My main focus is on ‘spaces of violence’ - namely, incidental, institutional, ad hoc or invisible spaces where transgressive violence becomes the norm (whether for a limited or an indefinite period of time). I am especially interested in how mass violence unfolds as a spatially conditioned phenomenon in each case and how the mechanics of ‘licence’ define those spaces in the first instance. This research has brought me to a theoretical and empirical examination of different spaces (prisons, institutionalised camps, death camps or public locations where transgressive violence occurred through collective agency).



  • His 10029 Modern History
  • His 20092 The History of the Camp:  Form the GULAG to the Jungle
  • His 30132 High-rise cities building modernity from the Empire state building to Glasgow's red road blocks


I would be very interested in supervising students with interests in the following broad fields:

  • fascism and totalitarianism
  • modern propaganda
  • violence, genocide, terrorism
  • urban studies
  • German and Italian history/politics
  • Greek interwar history
  • modern and contemporary 'political religions'

Rethinking fascism and dictatorship in Europe
Pinto, A.C., Kallis, A. 14/09/2014 Palgrave Macmillan. 320 p.

The 'fascist effect': on the dynamics of political hybridisation in Interwar Europe
Kallis, A. 14/09/2014 In: Rethinking fascism and dictatorship in Europe. Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan
Chapter (peer-reviewed)

The third Rome, 1922-1943: the making of the fascist capital
Kallis, A. 1/08/2014 Basingstoke : Macmillan Palgrave. 352 p. ISBN: 0230283993, 9780230283992. Electronic ISBN: 9781137433565.

The factory of illusions in the ‘Third Rome’: Circus Maximus as a space of fascist simulation
Kallis, A. 2014 In: Fascism. 3, 1, p. 20-45. 26 p.
Journal article

Breaking the taboos and “mainstreaming” the extreme: the debates on restricting Islamic symbols in Europe
Kallis, A. 2013 In: Right-wing populism in Europe. London : Bloomsbury Academic p. 55-70. 16 p.
Chapter (peer-reviewed)

Far-right “contagion” or a failing “mainstream”?: how dangerous ideas cross borders and blur boundaries
Kallis, A. 2013 In: Democracy and Security. 9, 3, p. 221-246. 26 p.
Journal article

Landscapes of ‘othering’ in postwar and contemporary Germany: the limits of the ‘culture of contrition’ and the poverty of the mainstream
Kallis, A. 10/2012 In: Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism. 12, 2, p. 387-407. 21 p.
Journal article

The 'Third Rome' of Fascism: Demolitions and the Search for a New 'Urban Syntax'
Kallis, A. 2012 In: Journal of Modern History. 84, 1, p. 40-79. 40 p.
Journal article

'Framing' Romanità: The Celebrations for the Bimillenario Augusteo and the Augusteo–Ara Pacis Project
Kallis, A. 10/2011 In: Journal of Contemporary History. 46, 4, p. 809-831. 23 p.
Journal article

Race and ethnicity
Kallis, A. 2011 In: Europe in a global context. Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan p. 128-140. 13 p. ISBN: 9780230285835 .

‘In miglior tempo … ’: what fascism did not build in Rome
Kallis, A. 2011 In: Journal of Modern Italian Studies. 16, 1, p. 59-83. 25 p.
Journal article

‘Reconciliation’ or ‘conquest’?: the opening of the via della Conciliazione and the fascist vision for the ‘Third Rome’
Kallis, A. 2011 In: Rome: Continuing Encounters between Past and Present . Ashgate p. 129-152. 29 p.
Chapter (peer-reviewed)

Neither fascist nor authoritarian: The 4th of August regime in Greece (1936-1941) and the dynamics of fascistisation in 1930s Europe
Kallis, A. 1/12/2010 In: East Central Europe. 37, 2-3, p. 303-330. 28 p.
Journal article

Fascism and the Jews: from the internationalization of fascism to a 'fascist anti-Semitism'
Kallis, A. 2010 In: Holocaust Studies. 15, 1-2, p. 15-34. 20 p.
Journal article

Fascism, ‘licence’, and genocide: from the chimera of rebirth to the authorisation of mass murder
Kallis, A. 2010 In: Rethinking the nature of fascism . Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan p. 227-269. 43 p.
Chapter (peer-reviewed)

Genocide and Fascism: The Eliminationist Drive in Fascist Europe
Kallis, A. 2009 New York : Routledge. 426 p. ISBN: 978-0-415-33960-5.

Nazi propaganda decision-making: the hybrid of ‘modernity’ and ‘neo-feudalism’ in Nazi wartime propaganda
Kallis, A. 2009 In: Portuguese Journal of Social Science. 8, 2, p. 61-84. 24 p.
Journal article

Nazi Propoganda and the Second World War.
Kallis, A.A. 2007 Palgrave-Macmillan. 1 p. ISBN: 9780230546813.

The Jewish Community of Salonica under Siege: The Antisemitic Violence of the Summer of 1931.
Kallis, A.A. 1/04/2006 In: Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 20, 1, p. 34-56. 23 p.
Journal article

Fascism 'charisma' and 'charismatisation' : Weber's model of 'charismatic domination' and interwar European fascism.
Kallis, A.A. 2006 In: Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 7, 1, p. 25-43. 19 p.
Journal article

National socialist propaganda and World War II (1939-1945).
Kallis, A.A. 2006 Basingstoke : Palgrave.

Perversions of Nationalism in modern Europe.
Kallis, A.A. 2006 In: Nationalism in historical perspective.. New York : Praeger p. 131-149. 19 p.

Racial politics and biomedical totalitarianism in interwar Europe.
Kallis, A.A. 2006 In: Blood and homeland : eugenics and racial nationalism in Central and Eastern Europe, 1900-1940.. Budapest : CEU Press p. 389-416. 28 p.

Too many facscisms?
Kallis, A.A. 2006 In: Fascism past and present, west and east.. Stuttgart : ibidem-Verlag p. 136-140. 5 p.

Nazi propaganda in the Second World War.
Kallis, A. 12/2005 Palgrave

Totalitarianism and totalitarian dictatorship in the twentieth century.
Kallis, A.A. 2004 In: History in dispute. St Martin's Press

"Fascism", "Para-fascism" and "Fascistization": On the Similarities of Three Conceptual Categories.
Kallis, A.A. 1/04/2003 In: European History Quarterly. 33, 2, p. 219-50. 170 p.
Journal article

To Expand or Not to Expand? Territory, Generic Fascism and the Quest for an "Ideal Fatherland".
Kallis, A.A. 1/04/2003 In: Journal of Contemporary History. 38, 2, p. 238-60. 179 p.
Journal article

History, education and the construction of a common European citizenship.
Kallis, A.A. 2003 In: Political learning and citizenship in Europe. London : Trentham Books p. 45-67. 23 p.

The facism reader.
Kallis, A.A. 2003 London : Routledge.