Unconscious Bias Bibliography

The following publications demonstrate biases related to the protected characteristics of gender and race. These publications generally conclude that the individuals showing a bias are not aware of their bias i.e. it is unconscious.


Publication Area of work Area of bias
  Recruitment and Selection  
Reuben et al., 2013 Fictitous position for individial requiring maths skills Gender
Moss-Racusin et al., 2012 Fictitious position for laboratory manager Gender
Rooth (2010) Real world data on hiring and ethnicity combined with Implicit Association Tests Gender
Steinpreis et al., 1999 Fictitious position for psychologist Gender
King et al., 2006  Shortlisting on manipulated CV's with names indicating ethnicity  Race
Bertrand & Mullainathan (2004)  Shortlisting on genuine CV's with fictituous names indicating ethnicity  Race
Carlson and Rooth (2008)  CV's with overseas qualifications  Race
Trix and Psenka (2003)  Real-life letters of recommendation.  Gender
Goldin and Rouse (2000)  Auditions for orchestras - showed that gender equality in recruitment was improved following blind auditions. Gender
   Peer Review  
Wennerås and Wold (1997) Peer Review in grant applications in Sweden Gender
Peters and Ceci (1982) Peer Review in journals Institutional reputation
  Student Assessment of University-level Teaching  
Bell and Brooks (2016) National Student Survey - student satisifaction. Race (no evidence for gender bias)
Boring et al., 2016 Student assessment of University teaching. Gender
Lynn Ewing et al., 2003 Student assessment of teaching. Note: students appear to make some adjustments for bias but these are unhelpful Sexuality
McConnell and Leibold, 2001 Friendliness of body language Race
Salerno and Peter-Hagene, 2015 Groups decisions and reactions to strongly epxressed opinions Gender
Heilman and Okimoto (2007) Likeability of managers based on fictitious descriptiona Gender
Green et al., 2007 Decisions on medical procedures (thrombolysis) Race