Medical Ethics and Law
MA, PgCert, PgDip
- Mode of study
- Full time, Part time
- Duration of Study
- One year full-time, two years part-time, up to five years modular.
- Humanities and Social Sciences
- Postgraduate Administrator
- Subject Area
Advances in biomedical technology, changing moral attitudes, and developments in law, combine to generate difficult ethical, legal, policy challenges for those involved in the delivery of healthcare. This programme will provide an opportunity for you to gain a deeper and more systematic understanding of these issues and to explore the moral problems faced by healthcare practitioners as well as those involved in healthcare management and policy. It also provides a foundation for pursuing further study at doctoral level for those interested in doing so.
About the course
We welcome applications from people with a professional or other serious interest in Medical Ethics and Law, including (but not limited to) doctors, nurses, health care managers, intercalating medical students, radiographers, chaplains, charity and voluntary workers, social workers, hospice directors, medical and pharmaceutical researchers, dentists, veterinary practitioners and health care educators. While the programme is designed to be accessible to healthcare professionals in full-time work, it is open to anyone who is suitably qualified and who can demonstrate sufficient academic aptitude. The programme has increasingly attracted recent graduates who wish either to build on previous study in law or ethics or to develop their studies in a new direction.
The MA in Medical Ethics and Law is run by the Centre for Professional Ethics and School of Law at Keele University. It is one of England’s longest established master’s programmes in this subject area, having first been presented in 1987.
The programme is available part-time, full-time, by modular study, and by intercalation within a medical degree. It is taught in short, intensive blocks to make it accessible to those in full-time employment and from across the country and beyond.
Teaching staff also work at the forefront of research in medical ethics, which helps to give the course a contemporary edge. In the most recent 2014 REF, staff from Keele's Healthcare Law and Bioethics cluster who teach on the MA were part of Keele's Philosophy submission, which was ranked first in the country for its Impact work. The impact submission was based on work in the field of Biomedical ethics, with 80% of this work judged as being world-leading and the remaining 20% as being internationally excellent.
Aims of the course
This course aims to deepen your understanding of health care ethics and law, and to enhance your ability to think systematically about the moral and legal issues that health care professionals may face in the course of their work. It also provides a foundation for pursuing further study at doctoral level for those interested in doing so.
Undertaking an MA in ethics will not give you a list of answers to moral problems. The moral problems worth looking at are all hard – there are no easy answers. What our programme can do is help you to work out answers for yourself, answers that are worth having because they are based on the best ethical thinking and reasoning we can manage, answers you can justify to yourself and others. The programme will introduce you to a variety of rival moral theories - all of which have their strengths and their weaknesses - as well as providing you with a range of analytical tools with which to assess different ethical and legal claims. It will also help you to communicate ethical and legal arguments to others in a clearer way.
Although ethical issues are rarely out of the headlines, much public ‘debate' about ethics in the media is (with occasional honourable exceptions) of very poor quality. It often consists of 'sound-bite' rhetorical assertions followed by counter-assertions, without any real examination of the ethical reasons for either position. Our courses will help you to construct, categorise and criticise different ethical arguments and to spot common fallacies. As well as critiquing others' arguments you will have plenty of opportunity to practise putting forward your own arguments in classroom discussion as well as in your written assessments. Ethics at Keele is a participatory activity, not a spectator sport!
Academic Entry Requirements
The MA in Medical Ethics and Law is open to graduates with a first or second class honours degree in a relevant subject such as medicine, nursing, law, philosophy or medical sciences, or an international equivalent.
We will also consider applicants with equivalent work experience and/or professional qualifications in healthcare.
English Language Entry Requirement for International Students
IELTS 6.5 with a minimum of 5.5 in each component. The University also accepts a range of internationally recognised English tests.
Students who have graduated from a country where English is the first language and the degree was taught and assessed in English are not normally required to take an IELTS or other English language test.
If you do not meet the English language requirements, the University offers English language preparation programmes to help you reach the required level of English
During your degree programme you can study additional English language courses. This means you can continue to improve your English language skills at the same time as your academic study and gain a higher level of English.
Intercalating Medical Students
We welcome applications from undergraduate medical students who have the option to take an intercalated year. To take the MA in Medical Ethics and Law as an intercalated year, you must normally have completed the fourth year of a medical degree. To ensure the course is completed within one year, you must study the MA in Medical Ethics and Law as a full time student.
The MA in Medical Ethics and Law consists of four 30-credit taught modules and a 60-credit dissertation.
When taken part-time the four taught modules are completed in the first year, with the dissertation being completed in the second year. The part-time mode of study is designed to meet the needs of healthcare practitioners and others who wish to combine study for the MA with full-time employment. The part time programme requires only 13 days attendance in year 1 (an Induction Day and four 3-day intensive teaching blocks) and one day in year 2 (a Research Methods study day in October). Many second year students find it useful to come to Keele more frequently, to meet their supervisors, attend talks by visiting speakers, and use other university facilities. Others, especially those who live some distance away, prefer to keep in touch via email or phone, or use a combination of methods.
The full-time MA is completed in one year. Students begin work on the dissertation alongside the taught modules and submit it at the start of September.
Students taking the MA by modular study may take one or more taught modules per year for a period of up to four years, followed by the dissertation in the subsequent year. (Maximum five years in total.) The Semester 1 modules must normally be completed before the Semester 2 modules.
Some students may not want to do the entire MA Programme. These students may exit the programme after completing the taught modules. Successful completion of all four taught modules (120 credits) leads to the award of a Postgraduate Diploma in Medical Ethics and Law; while successful completion any two taught modules (60 credits) leads to the award of a Postgraduate Certificate in Medical Ethics and Law.
Moral Theory and Medical Ethics (30 credits)
This module equips students with a knowledge of key ethical theories, frameworks and principles that inform academic debates in medical and healthcare ethics, and enables them to use these tools to analyse practical moral problems in medicine and healthcare. It also provides students with a practical understanding of the norms and conventions of academic argument and writing in applied ethics.
Topics covered typically include:
- virtue ethics
- ethics of care
- autonomy and paternalism
- the ethical foundations of consent
- liberty and toleration
- evaluating and constructing ethical arguments
- introduction to the library and electronic resources
- how to write essays in ethics
Principles of Medical Law (30 credits)
This module aims to equip students with a knowledge of key principles, cases and statutes in medical law. It enables them to critique aspects of medical law and to apply their knowledge of the law to practices in medicine and healthcare, and provides them with a practical understanding of the norms and conventions of academic argument and writing in medical law.
Topics covered typically include:
- introduction to law
- use of cases and statutes
- healthcare law and the concept of health
- regulation and self-regulation in the healthcare system
- law and consent
- professional negligence
- mental health law
- confidentiality and the law
- the relationship between law and morality
- writing law essays
- legal arguments and referencing
Life, Death and the Human Body (30 credits)
This module enables students to extend their knowledge of ethical and legal concepts, principles and theories, especially those relating to the moral and legal status of persons and human bodies and the value and boundaries of human life, and to apply such principles to practical issues in healthcare and medicine including intervention at the beginning and end of life and modification of the human body.
Topics covered typically include:
- abortion: ethical and legal issues
- regulating reproduction
- selective reproduction and saviour siblings
- euthanasia: ethical issues
- death, dying and the law
- advance directives
- post mortem organ transplant
- treatment of intersex children
- transgender, medicine and the law
- assignment guidance and feedback
Healthcare, Justice and Society (30 credits)
This module enables students to apply and extend their knowledge of ethical and legal concepts, principles and theories in the context of practical issues in healthcare affecting the relations between healthcare practitioners, patients and wider society, and to acquire knowledge and critical understanding of a range of contemporary ethical and legal controversies surrounding a range of such issues.
Topics covered typically include:
- biomedical research ethics and law
- ethical issues in bio-banking
- ethical issues in stem cell policy
- criminal regulation of medicine
- conscientious objection in healthcare
- healthcare and international law
- ethics and law of healthcare resource allocation.
The module also includes guidance for part-time students on progression to the dissertation stage.
Dissertation (60 credits)
The dissertation provides an opportunity for students to use the knowledge and skills acquired during their programme of study to undertake a more extended piece of work on a topic of their choice. The module consists of independent supervised study leading to the production of a 15,000 to 20,000-word dissertation.
The dissertation offers students an opportunity to develop basic research skills to the level at which a competent piece of work at Masters level can be undertaken. A student achieving pass level in the dissertation should be equipped for independent research at a higher level. Dissertation topics are chosen by the students themselves and must relate to an issue within the broad area of health care law or ethics. No primary empirical research is undertaken for this module.
Some students start the course with a clear idea about what they want to write about - often an ethical issue from within their own practice - but others find and develop particular interests as the course progresses. Recent dissertation topics have included:
- Conscientious objection and assisted dying
- Resource allocation in a public health emergency
- Abortion and fetal abnormality
- Provision of medical care to patients seeking assisted dying abroad
- Advising patients regarding DNA CPR
- Responding to requests for futile treatment
- Organ donation without informed consent
- Judicial review in the allocation of medical resources
- Overriding of treatment refusals by Gillick-competent children
- Sedation at end of life
- Equality or equity in global health
- Reform of Liberty Protection Safeguards
- Children and research trials
- Pregnancy, labour, and consent
- Advance directives and autonomy
- Rationing and age discrimination
- Veterinary ethics
If there is a particular area you wish to write about and would like to discuss this prior to applying for the course, please contact us.
Teaching and assessment
Teaching for the four taught modules is delivered in short intense blocks, enabling those in full-time employment to do the course part-time and to fit it around the demands of their work wherever they are based. Each student is assigned a personal supervisor from the outset, whom they can contact for help or advice at any time during the course.
We regard high levels of student participation in discussion as particularly important for teaching and learning in this area, and employ teaching techniques which encourage this wherever possible. Students come from a wide range of backgrounds and report that meeting and exchanging ideas with others who work in different fields and in different parts of the country is one of the major benefits of the course.
From time to time, experts from outside Keele are invited to speak on the course; this provides an insight into academic work in healthcare ethics and law taking place in other institutions and professional perspectives. In addition, the Law School hosts a wide range of seminars, workshops and lectures, which students are welcome to attend.
Each of the four taught modules is assessed through a 5,000-word essay. The essay question is chosen from a list reflecting the main themes of the module, enabling students to focus on the issues that are most interesting to them or relevant to their work. For some modules students submit a plan, on which feedback is provided. In addition, students receive written feedback on each of their essays, aimed at helping them to improve their performance as they progress through the programme, and have the opportunity to discuss the feedback with their personal tutor.
For the dissertation module, students are allocated a supervisor to provide support and advice during the writing process, and attend a one-day Research Methods Workshop in Semester 1.
Students not living within daily travelling distance of Keele will need to arrange accommodation during the teaching blocks.
Although recommended readings are available in the library or on-line, students may wish to purchase some books for themselves.
We do not anticipate any other additional costs for this postgraduate programme.
What our Students Say
“It has been a fantastic experience studying medical ethics and law at Keele, I have genuinely enjoyed every moment and thank you again for your extremely helpful advice which allowed me to achieve at a level I never expected to.” (Merrigan Bee, MA in Medical Ethics and Law, 2018)
“I’ve always been interested in the ethical and legal side of healthcare and this course seemed to offer everything I wanted, so I could study the subject in more depth. We covered the ethics and law of reproduction, death and dying, conscientious objection, gender issues in healthcare and more! The course opened my mind to so many other issues in healthcare and focused it on the importance of ethical healthcare which puts people first. The course was flexible to fit in with work and the quality of the teaching staff was superb." (Beverley Bostock, MA in Medical Ethics and Law, 2017)
"I have thoroughly enjoyed the course and found it a very valuable experience which I hope will make me a better doctor." (Neonatal Registrar, Postgraduate Diploma in Medical Ethics and Law, 2015)
"Staff all impressively enthusiastic – very welcoming and inclusive"
"The course was wonderful, entertaining and the fellow students were useful because of the diverse range"
"Overall I have thoroughly enjoyed the taught part of the course and am sorry that we have reached the end of it so quickly"
"I have had a fantastic experience and have really enjoyed the teaching and interaction"
"The group has brought together different professions and views which have been expressed freely"
"I'm very sad that the taught blocks have finished - thank you for all your hard work and interest"
"I thoroughly enjoyed the course, the group was lovely and the lecturers were interesting and engaging"
"A thoroughly enjoyable course that I would recommend to any of my colleagues, I am sad that all the taught modules have come to an end, a massive credit to all the tutors involved in delivering the course it has met my expectations and more"
"This course has challenged me and given me new frameworks to develop my ideas, I have challenged my own beliefs and have been forced to establish solid arguments for my gut instincts"
"I have really developed a new approach towards issues and problems I face in my work"
"Very highly recommended course"
"A fantastic element was meeting the other students and professionals in my course, meeting them and their ideas was very stimulating"
Teaching Block Dates
Registration and Induction Day
Tuesday 1st October 2019
Module 1 - Moral Theory and Medical Ethics
Wednesday 2nd - Friday 4th October 2019
Research Methods Workshop (year 2 and full-time only)
Wednesday 9th October 2019
Module 2 - Principles of Medical Law
Wednesday 27th -Friday 29th November 2019
Module 3 - Life, Death and the Human Body
Wednesday 22nd - Friday 24th January 2020
Module 4 - Healthcare, Justice and Society
Wednesday 18th - Friday 20th March 2020