Prof Bill Farrell

Title: Emeritus Professor of Human Genomics
Phone: +44 (0)1782 674389
Email: w.e.farrell@keele.ac.uk
Location: Postgraduate Medicine
Role: ISTM Research themes: 1. Cell & Molecular Medicine
2. Diagnostic Engineering and Proteomics
Contacting me: Arrange an appointment by e-mail.
bill farrell

My early career was spent as a chemical analyst in the petrochemical industry and subsequently followed with studied toward a BSc degree in Biochemistry and Medical Cell Biology at the University of Liverpool (First call Honours). After a period at Astra Zeneca (formerly ICI Diagnostics) as research scientist I went on to complete a PhD in Molecular Biology at the University of Manchester. A lectureship at Liverpool John Moores was then followed by appointment to the University of Keele where most of my academic career and research has been performed. I am Professor of Human Genomics In addition I have completed sabbatical research and extended visits to US institutions that include the Thomas Jefferson, Philadelphia, NIH (Bethesda Washington DC) and Cedars Sinai, Los Angeles. I am also on the editorial boards, as Senior Associate Editor for Endocrine Diabetes and Metabolism Case Reports and Scientific Editor for the journals Endocrine Related Cancer, Neuroendocrinology and Endocrine Pathology.

ISTM Research themes: 1. Cell & Molecular Medicine
                                        2. Diagnostic Engineering and Proteomics

My PhD training was carried out at the University of Manchester examining the expression and molecular biology of the POMC gene and glucocorticoid receptor regulation. As a PI at the University of Keele my research has focused primarily on the molecular biology of pituitary tumours and more recently on epigenetic changes in bladder tumours and rheumatoid arthritis. In a multi-institution collaboration we have also investigate genome-wide changes to the fetal epigenome and in particular in the context of folic acid supplementation and folate metabolism. Our first study of methylation mediated silencing in pituitary tumours described epigenetic silencing of the CDKN2A gene and numerous other laboratories have since replicated these findings. Many of our published studies are regarded as novel and “first past the post”. While early studies adopted candidate gene approaches more recent studies have employed whole genome analysis. As example, we were the first to employ whole genome amplification to perform a high-density allelotyping of pituitary adenomas and in a subsequent study to employ this new-found knowledge to a retrospective cohort of recurrent pituitary tumours. In 2004 we identified, from the pituitary, a novel pro-apoptotic gene of previous unknown function on the basis of its differential methylation. More recently our laboratory (Dudley et al., 2008), used a siRNA approach to reverse epigenetic change in a murine pituitary cell line model and thereby identify, in an expression array-based (genome-wide) approach, numerous novel silenced genes in these cells and many of these gene were also found to be subject to epigenetic silencing in primary human pituitary tumours. Our laboratory is also the first to described genome-wide DNA BeadArray analysis of each of the major pituitary adenoma subtype (Duong et al., 2012) and to show the effects of the so name epidrugs on gene and pituitary receptor expression (Al-Azzawi et al., Yacqub-Usman et al., 2012a, 2012b, 2013).These findings and reports over the past several years have led to numerous invitations to speak and also to chair symposia both nationally and internationally.

Fetal Epigenetics

A highly productive and rewarding area of research has also been possible through our Fetal Epigenetic Group

Membership of this multidisciplinary group has capitalised on our expertise in epigenetics, and in particular unbiased whole-genome analyses in relation to cancer related and cancer predisposition genes. Our focus, as a group has been centred around nutrition and in particular the role of folic acid and its metabolites on the fetal epigenome. Our success, built on an enthusiastic team approach has resulted in our research attracting funding from several sources including the WCRF. Our publications have generated considerable interest within both the scientific community and the media. We were particularly heartened that a review published by us in the BJOG, (Nafee TM et al, 2008) was the second most frequently cited paper of 2008. More recently, and attracting world-wide attention we identified from more than 27,000 genome-wide site a panel of genes associated with fetal birth weight. In these cases changes were associated with methylation changes (Fryer AA, et al., [2010 and 2011]) Epigenetics.

Selected Publications

  • Wu P, Farrell WE, Haworth KE, Emes RD, Kitchen MO, Glossop JR, Hanna FW, Fryer AA. 2018. Maternal genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in gestational diabetes shows distinctive disease-associated changes relative to matched healthy pregnancies. Epigenetics, vol. 13(2), 122-128. link> doi> full text>
  • Kitchen MO, Bryan RT, Haworth KE, Emes RD, Luscombe C, Gommersall L, Cheng KK, Zeegers MP, James ND, Devall AJ, Fryer AA, Farrell WE. 2015. Methylation of HOXA9 and ISL1 Predicts Patient Outcome in High-Grade Non-Invasive Bladder Cancer. PLoS One, vol. 10(9), e0137003. link> doi> full text>
  • Glossop JR, Haworth KE, Emes RD, Nixon NB, Packham JC, Dawes PT, Fryer AA, Mattey DL, Farrell WE. 2015. DNA methylation profiling of synovial fluid FLS in rheumatoid arthritis reveals changes common with tissue-derived FLS. Epigenomics, vol. 7(4), 539-551. link> doi>
  • Kitchen MO, Yacqub-Usman K, Emes RD, Richardson A, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2015. Epidrug mediated re-expression of miRNA targeting the HMGA transcripts in pituitary cells. Pituitary, vol. 18(5), 674-684. link> doi>
  • Farrell W. 2014. Gigantism and Acromegaly Due to Xq26 Microduplications and GPR101 Mutation. The New England Journal of Medicine. doi>

Full Publications List show

Journal Articles

  • Wu P, Farrell WE, Haworth KE, Emes RD, Kitchen MO, Glossop JR, Hanna FW, Fryer AA. 2018. Maternal genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in gestational diabetes shows distinctive disease-associated changes relative to matched healthy pregnancies. Epigenetics, vol. 13(2), 122-128. link> doi> full text>
  • Kitchen MO, Bryan RT, Haworth KE, Emes RD, Luscombe C, Gommersall L, Cheng KK, Zeegers MP, James ND, Devall AJ, Fryer AA, Farrell WE. 2015. Methylation of HOXA9 and ISL1 Predicts Patient Outcome in High-Grade Non-Invasive Bladder Cancer. PLoS One, vol. 10(9), e0137003. link> doi> full text>
  • Glossop JR, Haworth KE, Emes RD, Nixon NB, Packham JC, Dawes PT, Fryer AA, Mattey DL, Farrell WE. 2015. DNA methylation profiling of synovial fluid FLS in rheumatoid arthritis reveals changes common with tissue-derived FLS. Epigenomics, vol. 7(4), 539-551. link> doi>
  • Kitchen MO, Yacqub-Usman K, Emes RD, Richardson A, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2015. Epidrug mediated re-expression of miRNA targeting the HMGA transcripts in pituitary cells. Pituitary, vol. 18(5), 674-684. link> doi>
  • Farrell W. 2014. Gigantism and Acromegaly Due to Xq26 Microduplications and GPR101 Mutation. The New England Journal of Medicine. doi>
  • Haworth KE, Farrell WE, Emes RD, Ismail KMK, Carroll WD, Hubball E, Rooney A, Yates AM, Mein C, Fryer AA. 2014. Methylation of the FGFR2 gene is associated with high birth weight centile in humans. Epigenomics, vol. 6(5), 477-491. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE. 2014. Epigenetics of pituitary tumours: an update. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes, vol. 21(4), 299-305. link> doi>
  • Glossop JR, Emes RD, Nixon NB, Haworth KE, Packham JC, Dawes PT, Fryer AA, Mattey DL, Farrell WE. 2014. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in rheumatoid arthritis identifies disease-associated methylation changes that are distinct to individual T- and B-lymphocyte populations. Epigenetics, vol. 9(9), 1228-1237. link> doi>
  • Duong CV, Yacqub-Usman K, Emes RD, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2013. The EFEMP1 gene: a frequent target for epigenetic silencing in multiple human pituitary adenoma subtypes. Neuroendocrinology, vol. 98(3), 200-211. link> doi>
  • Glossop JR, Nixon NB, Emes RD, Haworth KE, Packham JC, Dawes PT, Fryer AA, Mattey DL, Farrell WE. 2013. Epigenome-wide profiling identifies significant differences in DNA methylation between matched-pairs of T- and B-lymphocytes from healthy individuals. Epigenetics, vol. 8(11), 1188-1197. link> doi>
  • Yacqub-Usman K, Duong CV, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2013. Preincubation of pituitary tumor cells with the epidrugs zebularine and trichostatin A are permissive for retinoic acid-augmented expression of the BMP-4 and D2R genes. Endocrinology, vol. 154(5), 1711-1721. link> doi>
  • Haworth KE, Farrell WE, Emes RD, Ismail KMK, Carroll WD, Borthwick H-AD, Yates AM, Hubball E, Rooney A, Khanam M, Aggarwal N, Jones PW, Fryer AA. 2013. Combined influence of gene-specific cord blood methylation and maternal smoking habit on birth weight. Epigenomics, vol. 5(1), 37-49. link> doi>
  • Duong CV, Emes RD, Wessely F, Yacqub-Usman K, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2012. Quantitative, genome-wide analysis of the DNA methylome in sporadic pituitary adenomas. Endocr Relat Cancer, vol. 19(6), 805-816. link> doi>
  • Emes RD, Clifford H, Haworth KE, Farrell WE, Fryer AA, Carroll WD, Ismail KMK. 2013. Antiepileptic drugs and the fetal epigenome. Epilepsia, vol. 54(1), e16-e19. link> doi>
  • Yacqub-Usman K, Duong CV, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2012. Epigenomic silencing of the BMP-4 gene in pituitary adenomas: a potential target for epidrug-induced re-expression. Endocrinology, vol. 153(8), 3603-3612. link> doi>
  • Yacqub-Usman K, Richardson A, Duong CV, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2012. The pituitary tumour epigenome: aberrations and prospects for targeted therapy. Nat Rev Endocrinol, vol. 8(8), 486-494. link> doi>
  • Emes RD and Farrell WE. 2012. Make way for the 'next generation': application and prospects for genome-wide, epigenome-specific technologies in endocrine research. J Mol Endocrinol, vol. 49(1), R19-R27. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE, Azevedo MF, Batista DL, Smith A, Bourdeau I, Horvath A, Boguszewski M, Quezado M, Stratakis CA. 2011. Unique gene expression profile associated with an early-onset multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1)-associated pituitary adenoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 96(11), E1905-E1914. link> doi>
  • Fryer AA, Emes RD, Ismail KMK, Haworth KE, Mein C, Carroll WD, Farrell WE. 2011. Quantitative, high-resolution epigenetic profiling of CpG loci identifies associations with cord blood plasma homocysteine and birth weight in humans. Epigenetics, vol. 6(1), 86-94. link> doi>
  • Al-Azzawi H, Yacqub-Usman K, Richardson A, Hofland LJ, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2011. Reversal of endogenous dopamine receptor silencing in pituitary cells augments receptor-mediated apoptosis. Endocrinology, vol. 152(2), 364-373. link> doi>
  • Rowther FB, Richardson A, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2010. Bromocriptine and dopamine mediate independent and synergistic apoptotic pathways in pituitary cells. Neuroendocrinology, vol. 91(3), 256-267. link> doi>
  • Fryer AA, Nafee TM, Ismail KMK, Carroll WD, Emes RD, Farrell WE. 2009. LINE-1 DNA methylation is inversely correlated with cord plasma homocysteine in man: a preliminary study. Epigenetics, vol. 4(6), 394-398. link> doi>
  • Revill K, Dudley KJ, Clayton RN, McNicol AM, Farrell WE. 2009. Loss of neuronatin expression is associated with promoter hypermethylation in pituitary adenoma. Endocr Relat Cancer, vol. 16(2), 537-548. link> doi>
  • Dudley KJ, Revill K, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2009. Pituitary tumours: all silent on the epigenetics front. J Mol Endocrinol, vol. 42(6), 461-468. link> doi>
  • Dudley KJ, Revill K, Whitby P, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2008. Genome-wide analysis in a murine Dnmt1 knockdown model identifies epigenetically silenced genes in primary human pituitary tumors. Mol Cancer Res, vol. 6(10), 1567-1574. link> doi>
  • Nafee TM, Farrell WE, Carroll WD, Fryer AA, Ismail KMK. 2008. Epigenetic control of fetal gene expression. BJOG, vol. 115(2), 158-168. link> doi>
  • Bahar A, Whitby P, Holley S, Hoban PR, Elder JB, Deakin M, Hall C, Clayton RN, Williams GT, Farrell WE. 2007. Primary colorectal tumors fail to express the proapoptotic mediator PTAG and its reexpression augments drug-induced apoptosis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer, vol. 46(2), 202-212. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE. 2006. Pituitary tumours: findings from whole genome analyses. Endocr Relat Cancer, vol. 13(3), 707-716. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE. 2006. A novel apoptosis gene identified in the pituitary gland. Neuroendocrinology, vol. 84(4), 217-221. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE. 2006. The WHO typing of pituitary tumors: a commentary. ACTA NEUROPATHOLOGICA, vol. 111(1), 60-61. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE. 2005. Epigenetic mechanisms of tumorigenesis. HORMONE AND METABOLIC RESEARCH, vol. 37(6), 361-368. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE. 2005. Epigenetic mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Horm Metab Res, vol. 37(6), 361-368. link> doi>
  • Bahar A, Simpson DJ, Cutty SJ, Bicknell JE, Hoban PR, Holley S, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Williams GT, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2004. Isolation and characterization of a novel pituitary tumor apoptosis gene. Mol Endocrinol, vol. 18(7), 1827-1839. link> doi>
  • FARRELL WE, McNicol AM, Murray DC, Simpson DJ. 2004. Molecular Pathology Shows p16 Methylation in Nonadenomatous Pituitaries from Patients with Cushing's Disease. Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 10(5), 1780-1788. doi>
  • FARRELL WE, Bahar A, Bicknell JE, Simpson DJ. 2004. Loss of expression of the growth inhibitory gene GADD45γ, in human pituitary adenomas, is associated with CpG island methylation. Oncogene, vol. 23(4), 936-944. doi>
  • CLAYTON RN and FARRELL WE. 2004. Pituitary tumour clonality revisited. Front Horm Res. doi>
  • Buch HN, Raskauskiene D, Bahar A, Bicknell EJ, Farrell WE, Clayton RN. 2004. Prediction of recurrence of nonfunctioning pituitary tumours by loss of heterozygosity analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), vol. 61(1), 19-25. link> doi>
  • Clayton RN and Farrell WE. 2003. Epigenetic change in pituitary tumorigenenis. Endocrine-related cancer, vol. 10(2), 323-330. doi>
  • Farrell WE, Coll AP, Clayton RN, Harris PE. 2003. Corticotroph carcinoma presenting as a silent corticotroph adenoma. Pituitary, vol. 6(1), 41-47.
  • Simpson DJ, Bicknell EJ, Buch HN, Cutty SJ, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2003. Genome-wide amplification and allelotyping of sporadic pituitary adenomas identify novel regions of genetic loss. Genes, chromosomes & cancer, vol. 37(3), 225-236. doi>
  • Fawole AS, Simpson DJ, Rajagopal R, Elder J, Holland TA, Fryer A, Deakin M, Elder JB, Farrell WE. 2002. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 10q is associated with earlier onset sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer, vol. 99(6), 829-833. link> doi>
  • Korbonits M, Chahal HS, Kaltsas G, Jordan S, Urmanova Y, Khalimova Z, Harris PE, Farrell WE, Claret FX, Grossman AB. 2002. Expression of phosphorylated p27 (kip1) protein and Jun activation domain-building protein 1 in human pituitary tumours. Journal of clinical enocrinology and metabolism, vol. 87(8), 2635-2643. doi>
  • Buch H, El-Hadd T, Bicknell J, Simpson DJ, Farrell WE, Clayton RN. 2002. Pituitary tumours are multiclonal from the outset: evidence from a case with dural metastases. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), vol. 56(6), 817-822. link> doi>
  • Simpson DJ, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2002. Preferential loss of Death Associated Protein kinase expression in invasive pituitary tumours is associated with either CpG island methylation or homozygous deletion. Oncogene, vol. 21(8), 1217-1224. link> doi>
  • McNicol AM, Sumal RV, Richmond JA, Farquharson MA, Farrell WE, Haak HR. 2002. Expression of G1/S phase checkpoint proteins is frequently abnormal in adrenal cortical tumors. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, vol. 82(1), 117A. link>
  • McNicol AM, Sumal RV, Richmond JA, Farquharson MA, Farrell WE, Haak HR. 2002. Expression of G1/S phase checkpoint proteins is frequently abnormal in adrenal cortical tumors. MODERN PATHOLOGY, vol. 15(1), 117A. link>
  • Korbonits M, Chahal HS, Kaltsas G, Jordan S, Urmanova Y, Khalimova Z, Harris PE, FARRELL WE, Claret FX, Grossman AB. 2002. Expression of phosphorylated p27 (Kip1) protein and Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 in huma pituitary tumours. Clin Endoocrinol Metab., vol. 87(6), 2635-2643.
  • Luscombe CJ, French ME, Saxby MF, Farrell WE, Jones PW, Fryer AA, Strange RC. 2003. Glutathione S-fransferase GSTP1 genotype are associated with response to androgen ablation therapy advanced prostate cancer. Cancer Detection and Prevention, vol. 26(5), 376-380. doi>
  • Rees DA, Hepburn PJ, McNicol AM, Francis K, Jasani B, FARRELL WE, Lewis MD, Lewis BM, Scanlon MF, Ham J. 2002. Loss of ACTH expression in cultured human corticotroph macroadenoma cells consistent with loss of the POMC gene signal sequence. Mol Cell Endocrinol, vol. 189(1-2), 51-57.
  • Rees DA, Hepburn PJ, McNicol AM, Francis K, Jasant B, Lewis BM, Farrell WE, Scanlon MF, Ham J. 2002. Loss of ACTH expression in cultured human corticotroph macroadenoma cells is consistent with loss of the POMC gene signal sequence. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 189(1-2), 51-57. doi>
  • Fawole AS, Simpson DJ, Rajagopal R, Elder J, Holland TA, Fryer AA, Deakin M, Elder JB, Farrell WE. 2002. Loss of Heterozygosity on chromosome 10q is associated with earlier onset sporadic colorectal adenocarinoma. International Journal of Cancer, vol. 99(6), 829/833.
  • Sandrini F, Kirschner LS, Bei T, Farmakidis C, Yasufuku-Takano J, Takano K, Prezant TR, Marx SJ, FARRELL WE, Clayton RN, Groussin L, Bertherat J, Stratakis CA. 2002. PRKAR1A, one of the Carney complex genes, and its locus (17q22-24) are rarely altered in pituitary tumours outside the Carney complex. Med Genet., vol. 39(12), 78.
  • Simpson DJ, Fryer AA, Grossman AB, Wass JAH, Pfeifer M, Kros JM, Clayton RM, Farrell WE. 2001. Cyclin D1 \fI(CCNDI)\fP Genotype is Associated with Tumour Grade in Sporadic Pituitary Adenomas. Carcinogenesis. doi>
  • Zahedi A, Booth GL, Smyth HS, Farrell WE, Clayton RN, Ezzat S. 2001. Distinct clonal composition of primary and metastatic adrencorticotrophic hormone-producing pituitary carcinoma. Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 55(4), 549-556. doi>
  • Simpson DJ, Frost SJ, Bicknell JE, Broome JC, McNicol AM, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2001. Aberrant expression of G(1)/S regulators is a frequent event in sporadic pituitary adenomas. Carcinogenesis, vol. 22(8), 1149-1154. link> doi>
  • Frost SJ, Simpson DJ, Farrell WE. 2001. Decreased proliferation and cell cycle arrest in neoplastic rat pituitary cells is associated with transforming growth factor-beta1-induced expression of p15/INK4B. Mol Cell Endocrinol, vol. 176(1-2), 29-37. link> doi>
  • Farrell W E and Clayton R N. 2001. Clonality of pituitary tumours : More complicated than initially envisaged. Brain Pathology, vol. 11(0), 313/327.
  • Farrell WE and Clayton RN. 2001. Clonality of pituitary tumours: More complicated than initially envisaged. Brain Pathology.
  • Frost S J, Simpson D J, Clayton R N, Farrell W E. 2001. Decreased Proliferation and Cell Cycle Arrest in Neoplastic Rat Pituitary Cells is Associated with Transforming Growth Factor B1 Induced Expression of p15/INK4B. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 2001, vol. 76(1/2), 29/37.
  • Frost SJ, Simpson DJ, FARRELL WE. 2001. Decreased proliferation and cell cycle arrest in neoplastic rat pituitary cells is associated with transforming growth factor-beta1-induced expression of p15/INK4B. Mol Cell Endocrinol., vol. 176(1-2), 29-37.
  • Farrell W E and Clayton R N. 2001. Distinct clonal composition of primary and metastatic adrencorticotphic hormone-producing pituitary carcinoma. Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 55(4), 549/556.
  • Zahedi A, Booth GL, Smyth HS, FARRELL WE, Clayton RN, Asa SL, Ezzat S. 2001. Distinct clonal composition of primary and metastatic adrencorticotrophic hormone-producing pituitary carcinoma. Clin Endoocrinol (Oxf)., vol. 55(4), 549-556.
  • Farrell WE, Simpson DJ, Frost SJ, Clayton RN. 2001. Molecular Aberrations Associated with Pituitary adenomas. Pituitary Disorder in Forum in Neuroscienze 2 (Ed R Buonaguidi (Pages 84-98)).
  • Davis JR, FARRELL WE, Clayton RN. 2001. Pituitary tumours. Reproduction, vol. 121(3), 363-371.
  • Farrell WE and Clayton RN. 2001. Pituitary tumours. Reproduction, 363-371. doi>
  • Simpson DJ, Frost SJ, Broome JC, McNicol AM, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2001. Pituitary tumours show frequent genetic aberrations at the G1/S phase of the cell cycle. Carcinogenesis.
  • Simpson D J, Frost S J, Clayton R N, Farrell W E. 2001. Pituitary tumours show frequent genetic aberrations at the G1/S phase of the cell cycle. Carcinogenesis, vol. 22(0), 11149/54.
  • Clayton RN, Pfeifer M, Atkinson AB, Belchetz P, Wass JA, Kyrodimou E, Vanderpump M, Simpson D, Bicknell J, Farrell WE. 2000. Different patterns of allelic loss (loss of heterozygosity) in recurrent human pituitary tumors provide evidence for multiclonal origins. Clin Cancer Res, vol. 6(10), 3973-3982. link>
  • Farrell WE and Clayton RN. 2000. Molecular pathogenesis of pituitary tumors. Front Neuroendocrinol, vol. 21(3), 174-198. link> doi>
  • Fawole AS, Elder J, Holland TA, Fryer AA, Anwar S, Rajagopal R, Deakin M, Hall C, Elder JB, Farrell WE. 2000. Region of frequent loss of heterozygosity on long arm of chromosome 10 associated with earlier age of presentation in sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma. GUT, vol. 46, A53. link>
  • Simpson DJ, Hibberts NA, McNicol AM, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2000. Loss of pRb expression in pituitary adenomas is associated with methylation of the RB1 CpG island. Cancer Res, vol. 60(5), 1211-1216. link>
  • Farrell WE, Simpson DJ, Frost SJ, Clayton RN. 1999. Methylation mechanisms in pituitary tumorigenesis. Endocr Relat Cancer, vol. 6(4), 437-447. link> doi>
  • Frost SJ, Simpson DJ, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 1999. Transfection of an inducible p16/CDKN2A construct mediates reversible growth inhibition and G1 arrest in the AtT20 pituitary tumor cell line. Mol Endocrinol, vol. 13(11), 1801-1810. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE and Clayton RN. 1999. Tumour suppressor genes in pituitary tumour formation. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 13(3), 381-393. link> doi>
  • Hibberts NA, Simpson DJ, Bicknell JE, Broome JC, Hoban PR, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 1999. Analysis of cyclin D1 (CCND1) allelic imbalance and overexpression in sporadic human pituitary tumors. Clin Cancer Res, vol. 5(8), 2133-2139. link>
  • Simpson DJ, Magnay J, Bicknell JE, Barkan AL, McNicol AM, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 1999. Chromosome 13q deletion mapping in pituitary tumors: infrequent loss of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB1) locus despite loss of RB1 protein product in somatotrophinomas. Cancer Res, vol. 59(7), 1562-1566. link>
  • Simpson DJ, Bicknell JE, McNicol AM, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 1999. Hypermethylation of the p16/CDKN2A/MTSI gene and loss of protein expression is associated with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas but not somatotrophinomas. Genes Chromosomes Cancer, vol. 24(4), 328-336. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE, Simpson DJ, Bicknell J, Magnay JL, Kyrodimou E, Thakker RV, Clayton RN. 1999. Sequence analysis and transcript expression of the MEN1 gene in sporadic pituitary tumours. Br J Cancer, vol. 80(1-2), 44-50. link> doi>
  • Anwar S, White J, Hall C, Farrell WE, Deakin M, Elder JB. 1999. Sporadic colorectal polyps: management options and guidelines. Scand J Gastroenterol, vol. 34(1), 4-11. link> doi>
  • FARRELL WE and Clayton RN. 1999. Tumour suppressor genes in pituitary tumour formation. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab., vol. 13(3), 381-393.
  • Worrall SF, Corrigan M, High A, Starr D, Matthias C, Wolf CR, Jones PW, Hand P, Gilford J, Farrell WE, Hoban P, Fryer AA, Strange RC. 1998. Susceptibility and outcome in oral cancer: preliminary data showing an association with polymorphism in cytochrome P450 CYP2D6. Pharmacogenetics, vol. 8(5), 433-439. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE and Clayton RN. 1998. Molecular biology of human pituitary adenomas. Ann Med, vol. 30(2), 192-198. link> doi>
  • Huizenga NATM, de Lange P, Koper JW, Clayton RN, Farrell WE, van der Lely AJ, Brinkmann AO, de Jong FH, Lamberts SWJ. 1998. Human adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas show frequent loss of heterozygosity at the glucocorticoid receptor gene locus. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, vol. 83(3), 917-921. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE and Clayton RN. 1998. Molecular genetics of pituitary tumours. Trends Endocrinol Metab, vol. 9(1), 20-26. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE, Talbot JA, Bicknell EJ, Simpson D, Clayton RN. 1997. Genomic sequence analysis of a key residue (Arg183) in human G alpha q in invasive non-functional pituitary adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), vol. 47(2), 241-244. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE, Simpson DJ, Bicknell JE, Talbot AJ, Bates AS, Clayton RN. 1997. Chromosome 9p deletions in invasive and noninvasive nonfunctional pituitary adenomas: the deleted region involves markers outside of the MTS1 and MTS2 genes. Cancer Res, vol. 57(13), 2703-2709. link>
  • Bates AS, Farrell WE, Bicknell EJ, McNicol AM, Talbot AJ, Broome JC, Perrett CW, Thakker RV, Clayton RN. 1997. Allelic deletion in pituitary adenomas reflects aggressive biological activity and has potential value as a prognostic marker. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 82(3), 818-824. link> doi>
  • Sarhanis P, Redman C, Perrett C, Brannigan K, Clayton RN, Hand P, Musgrove C, Suarez V, Jones P, Fryer AA, Farrell WE, Strange RC. 1996. Epithelial ovarian cancer: influence of polymorphism at the glutathione S-transferase GSTM1 and GSTT1 loci on p53 expression. Br J Cancer, vol. 74(11), 1757-1761. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE, Stewart MF, Clark AJ, Crosby SR, Davis JR, White A. 1993. Glucocorticoid inhibition of ACTH peptides: small cell lung cancer cell lines are more resistant than pituitary corticotroph adenoma cells. J Mol Endocrinol, vol. 10(1), 25-32. link> doi>
  • Farrell WE, Clark AJ, Stewart MF, Crosby SR, White A. 1992. Bromocriptine inhibits pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA and ACTH precursor secretion in small cell lung cancer cell lines. J Clin Invest, vol. 90(3), 705-710. link> doi>
  • Crosby SR, Stewart MF, Farrell WE, Gibson S, White A. 1990. Comparison of ACTH and ACTH precursor peptides secreted by human pituitary and lung tumour cells in vitro. J Endocrinol, vol. 125(1), 147-152. link> doi>
  • White A, Stewart MF, Farrell WE, Crosby SR, Lavender PM, Twentyman PR, Rees LH, Clark AJ. 1989. Pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression and peptide secretion in human small-cell lung cancer cell lines. J Mol Endocrinol, vol. 3(1), 65-70. link> doi>
  • Anwar S, Hall C, White J, Deakin M, Farrell W, Elder JB. Hereditaey non-polyposis colorectal cancer: an updated review. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 26, 635-645.

Chapters

  • TROVILLAS J, LINDELL EP, BARKAN AL, FARRELL WE, WATSON RE, LLOYD RV. 2004. ACTH producing adenomas. In World Health Organisation classification of tumours. Pathology and genetics of tumours of endocrine organs. De LA, Lloyd RV, Heitz PU, Eng C (Eds.). IACR Press, Lyon.
  • KONTOGEORGOS G, WATSON RE, LINDELL EP, BARKAN AL, FARRELL WE, LLOYD RV. 2004. Growth hormone producing adenomas. In World Health Organisation classification of tumours. Pathology and genetics of tumours of endocrine organs. De LA, Lloyd RV, Heitz PU, Eng C (Eds.). IACR Press, Lyon.
  • CLAYTON RN and FARRELL WE. 2004. Pituitary tumours, clonality. In Encyclopaedia of Endocrine Diseases. Martini L (Ed.). Elsevier, San Diego.
  • LLOYD RV, KOVACS K, YOUNG WF, FARRELL WE, ASA SL, TROVILAS J, SANO T, SCHEITHAUER BH, HOVARTH E. 2004. Pituitary tumours: introduction. In World Health Organisation classification of tumours. Pathology and genetics of tumours of endocrine organs. De LA, Lloyd RV, Heitz PU, Eng C (Eds.). IACR Press, Lyon.
  • SAEGER W, FARRELL WE, HOVARTH E, LLOYD RV, KOVACS K, WATSON RE, NOSE V, LINDELL EP. 2004. Prolactin producing adenomas. In World Health Organisation classification of tumours. Pathology and genetics of tumours of endocrine organs. De LA, Lloyd RV, Heitz PU, Eng C (Eds.). IACR Press, Lyon.
  • FARRELL WE, Clayton RN, Boggild M, Bates AS, Bicknell J, Simpson D. 1996. Putative Tumour Suppressor Gene Deletions in Human Pituitary Tumours. In Pituitary Adenomas: From Basic Research to Diagnosis and Therapy. Werder KV and Fahlbusch R (Eds.). Elsevier.
  • FARRELL WE and White A. 1994. Growth of Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) cell lines. In Cell and Tissue Culture: Laboratory Procedures. Griffiths JB, Newell DG, Doyle A (Eds.). John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Other

  • Veenstra MJ, Van Koetsveld PM, Farrell WE, Dogan F, Waaijers AM, Sprij-Mooij D, Lamberts SWJ, De Herder W, Vitale G, Hofland LJ. 2014. Upregulation of Somatostatin Receptor Type 2 Expression in Neuroendocrine Tumors by Epigenetic Modulation. NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY (vol. 99, p. 229). link>
  • Glossop JR, Nixon NB, Emes RD, Dawes PT, Farrell WE, Mattey DL. 2013. GENOME-WIDE DNA METHYLATION PROFILING IN T CELLS FROM PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. RHEUMATOLOGY (vol. 52, p. 143). link>
  • Farrell WE. 2004. Epigenetic mechanisms of tumorigenesis. JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE (vol. 255, pp. 697-698). link>
  • Clayton RN, Buch H, El-Hadd T, Blacknell JE, Simpson DJ, Farrell WE. 2001. Metastatic pituitary tumour-Evidence of different clones of origin. American Endocrine Society 2001 83rd Meeting Conference Proceedings.
  • Clayton R, Simpson D, Farrell W. 2001. Metastic pituitary tumour-Evidence of different clones of origin. American Endo. Society 2001 83rd Meeting Conference Proceedings.
  • Frost S J, Simpson D J, Farrell W E. 2001. Stable inheritance of an imposed methylation pattern in the ATt20 cell line is reversed through drug induced demethylation. American endocrine Society 83rd Meeting Conference abstracts.
  • Frost SJ, Simpson DJ, Farrell WE. 2001. Stable inheritance of an imposed methylation pattern in the ATt20 cell line is reversed through drug induced demethylation. American Endocrine Society 83rd Meeting Conference abstracts.
  • Simpson DJ, Frost SJ, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2001. The role of the tumour suppressor gene p14ARF in pituitary tumorigenesis. American Endocrine Society 83rd Meeting conference Proceedings.
  • Simpson D J, Frost S, Clayton R, Farrell W E. 2001. The role of the tumour suppressor gene p14ARF in pituitary tumorigenesis. American Endo. Society 2001 83rd Meeting conference Proceedings.

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