Making your data and project the best it can be

When should quality and risk of bias be assessed?

We suggest assessing in two stages:

  • Before receiving data: assessments should be based on the original publications
  • After receiving data: assessments can be revised/updated based on the participant-level data. In some situations, assessments may differ for different participants from the same primary study.
Additional considerations
  • IPD may allow the researchers to address risk of bias concerns
    • For example, they can apply additional inclusion/exclusion criteria and exclude or reinstate individual participants based on the revised criteria
  • IPD may also allow the researchers to address generalizability concerns
    • For example, the researchers can conduct subgroup analyses based on study or participant characteristics

Below you will find existing tools for assessing risk of bias and applicability/generalizability in conventional meta-analyses of various study designs.

Extensions to the IPD context are currently in progress by members of our team.

  • Randomized controlled trials:
    • RoB 2 tool: A revised Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized trials
  • Prediction model studies:
    • PROBAST: Prediction model Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool
  • Prognostic factor studies
    • QUIPS: QUality In Prognosis Studies tool
  • Diagnostic accuracy studies:
    • QUADAS-2: A revised tool for QUality Assessment in Diagnostic Accuracy Studies