I studied at the University College of Swansea, Wales, obtaining a B.Sc.(Econ.) in Politics and Sociology and an M.Sc.(Econ.) in Politics. I formerly taught at the University of York, where I was also for several years Director of Morrell Studies in Toleration. My principal research interests are contemporary political philosophy and literature and political theory. I have just completed a revised edition of my book Political Obligation (Palgrave) and I am currently working on the political theory of modus vivendi. In the past I have published extensively on political obligation, toleration, freedom, justice, public reason, literature, political theory, the nature of political philosophy and several leading political theorists.

I was Head of the Department of Politics from 1995 to 1998 and the founding Head of SPIRE between 1999 and 2002, and Head again between 2004 and 2007. I have served on Senate and been a member University Council, as well as serving on numerous University committees, including chairing the University Examinations Appeals Committee.

I am also a member of the Research Institute for Social Sciences.

Further details of publications, awards and grants.

Research and scholarship

Contemporary Political Philosophy, esp political obligation, toleration, liberalism, communitarianism, justice, justification and the work of John Rawls, Alasdair MacIntyre, John Gray and Richard Rorty.


  • Political Concepts
  • The Individual and the Community I


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