Biography

I completed my PhD in Chemistry at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand in 2012 under the supervision of Prof Paul Kruger, where I studied the coordination chemistry of pyrazole and indazole ligands in helicates and coordination polymers. Afterwards, I spent 3 years as a postdoctoral researcher at Monash University, Australia working on Metal-Organic Frameworks for carbon dioxide capture in the groups of Prof Stuart Batten and Dr David Turner, on a collaborative project funded by the Science and Industry Endowment Fund (SIEF).

In 2015 I relocated to Trinity College Dublin, Ireland to take up an Irish Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship, working with the group of Prof Thorri Gunnlaugsson on fluorescent coordination polymers for chemical sensing. Following this I was appointed as a Lecturer in Inorganic Chemistry in the School of Chemical and Physical Sciences at Keele University in late 2017.

For more information on my group, please visit the Hawes Research Group website

Research and scholarship

My research interests are based in supramolecular coordination chemistry and the synthesis of functional and responsive materials. In general, my research projects involve a substantial component of single-crystal X-ray crystallography, using laboratory and synchrotron sources, to probe the fascinating structural chemistry of these systems. As well as a large synthetic chemistry component, my research involves a wide variety of physical and spectroscopic characterisation techniques, and research projects can readily be tailored to the particular interests of students.

My current research is focused in two broad categories:

1) Metal-Organic Frameworks for adsorption, extraction and separation

Chris Hawes Research 1

Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are an exciting class of coordination compounds in which metal ions are linked by bridging ligands into crystalline, polymeric networks. These materials contain nanoscale pores which can be chemically tailored for carrying out specific functions. As well as their excellent potential for CO2 capture, my interest in these materials is their ability to selectively extract and concentrate dissolved species from the solution phase, which has particular relevance for chemical separation and extraction technologies. I am especially interested in developing new ligand systems for these materials, to incorporate additional chemical functionality or unusual structural properties.

2) Fluorescent sensing in coordination polymers and polynuclear coordination compounds

Chris Hawes Bio Pic 2

Fluorescent sensors are an attractive prospect for a broad range of applications, including environmental monitoring, quality assurance and security, because of the excellent sensitivity which can be achieved in these systems. My goal is to use the principles of host-guest chemistry and a class of particularly environment-sensitive fluorophores to develop fluorescent sensors for weakly-interacting analytes which do not undergo strong analyte-fluorophore interactions. These sensors are constructed within metallo-supramolecular systems, including cages, MOFs and metallogels, giving wide scope for utility. Mixtures containing organic analytes which are incapable of quenching fluorescence (thereby being difficult to detect) are particularly interesting targets for this study.

 

 

Selected Publications

  • Hawes CS, Lynes AD, Byrne K, Schmitt W, Ryan G, Möbius ME, Gunnlaugsson T. 2017. A resilient and luminescent stimuli-responsive hydrogel from a heterotopic 1,8-naphthalimide-derived ligand. Chem Commun (Camb), vol. 53(44), 5989-5992. link> doi> full text>
  • Hawes CS, Knowles GP, Chaffee AL, White KF, Abrahams BF, Batten SR, Turner DR. 2016. Porous Polyrotaxane Coordination Networks Containing Two Distinct Conformers of a Discontinuously Flexible Ligand. Inorg Chem, vol. 55(20), 10467-10474. link> doi> full text>
  • Hawes CS, Hamilton SE, Hicks J, Knowles GP, Chaffee AL, Turner DR, Batten SR. 2016. Coordination Chemistry and Structural Dynamics of a Long and Flexible Piperazine-Derived Ligand. Inorg Chem, vol. 55(13), 6692-6702. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS, Chilton NF, Moubaraki B, Knowles GP, Chaffee AL, Murray KS, Batten SR, Turner DR. 2015. Coordination polymers from a highly flexible alkyldiamine-derived ligand: structure, magnetism and gas adsorption studies. Dalton Trans, vol. 44(40), 17494-17507. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS, Nolvachai Y, Kulsing C, Knowles GP, Chaffee AL, Marriott PJ, Batten SR, Turner DR. 2014. Metal-organic frameworks as stationary phases for mixed-mode separation applications. Chem Commun (Camb), vol. 50(28), 3735-3737. link> doi>

Full Publications List show

Journal Articles

  • Yuan D, Cai N, Xu J, Miao D, Zhang S, Woodfine SE, Plana D, Hawes CS, Watkinson M. 2020. A Series of Manganese(III) Salen Complexes as a Result of Team-Based Inquiry in a Transnational Education Programme. Chempluschem, vol. 85(6), 1210-1219. link> doi> full text>
  • Hegarty IN, Dalton HL, Lynes AD, Haffner B, Möbius ME, Hawes CS, Gunnlaugsson T. 2020. Balancing connectivity with function in silver(i) networks of pyridyltriazole (tzpa) ligands results in the formation of a metallogel. Dalton Trans, vol. 49(22), 7364-7372. link> doi> full text>
  • Slyusarchuk VD, Kruger PE, Hawes CS. 2020. Cyclic Aliphatic Hydrocarbons as Linkers in Metal-Organic Frameworks: New Frontiers for Ligand Design. Chempluschem, vol. 85(5), 845-854. link> doi> full text>
  • Calatrava-Pérez E, Acherman S, Stricker L, McManus G, Delente J, Lynes AD, Henwood AF, Lovitt JI, Hawes CS, Byrne K, Schmitt W, Kotova O, Gunnlaugsson T, Scanlan EM. 2020. Fluorescent supramolecular hierarchical self-assemblies from glycosylated 4-amino- and 4-bromo-1,8-naphthalimides. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry. link> doi>
  • Fang L, Trigiante G, Crespo-Otero R, Hawes CS, Philpott MP, Jones CR, Watkinson M. 2019. Endoplasmic reticulum targeting fluorescent probes to image mobile Zn2. Chem Sci, vol. 10(47), 10881-10887. link> doi> full text>
  • Weekes RJ and Hawes CS. 2019. Synthesis, coordination chemistry and photophysical properties of naphtho-fused pyrazole ligands. CRYSTENGCOMM, vol. 21(34), 5152-5163. link> doi> full text>
  • Hegarty IN, Dalton HL, Henwood AF, Hawes CS, Gunnlaugsson T. 2019. Unexpected linkage isomerism in chiral tetranuclear bis-tridentate (1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-picolinamide (tzpa) grids. Chem Commun (Camb), vol. 55(64), 9523-9526. link> doi> full text>
  • Chen P, Ge W, Lu Y, Wu Z, Xu J, Woodfine SE, Darton RJ, Hawes CS. 2019. Substituent effects in the zinc(II) coordination chemistry of isomeric pyridylpyrazole ligands. JOURNAL OF COORDINATION CHEMISTRY, vol. 72(8), 1395-1416. link> doi> full text>
  • Calatrava-Pérez E, Delente JM, Shanmugaraju S, Hawes CS, Williams CD, Gunnlaugsson T, Scanlan EM. 2019. Correction: Glycosylated naphthalimides and naphthalimide Tröger's bases as fluorescent aggregation probes for Con A. Org Biomol Chem, vol. 17(8), 2287. link> doi> full text>
  • Calatrava-Pérez E, Delente JM, Shanmugaraju S, Hawes CS, Williams CD, Gunnlaugsson T, Scanlan EM. 2019. Glycosylated naphthalimides and naphthalimide Tröger's bases as fluorescent aggregation probes for Con A. Org Biomol Chem, vol. 17(8), 2116-2125. link> doi> full text>
  • Dalton HL, Lynes AD, Twamley B, Byrne K, Schmitt W, Hawes CS, Gunnlaugsson T. 2018. Exploring the reversible host-guest chemistry of a crystalline octanuclear Ag(i) metallosupramolecular macrocycle formed from a simple pyrazinylpyridine ligand. Dalton Trans, vol. 47(48), 17266-17275. link> doi> full text>
  • Lovitt JI, Hawes CS, Gunnlaugsson T. 2019. Crystallographic studies of 2-picolyl substituted naphthalene diimide and bis-phthalimide ligands and their supramolecular coordination chemistry. CRYSTENGCOMM, vol. 21(2), 207-217. link> doi> full text>
  • Emerson AJ, Hawes CS, Marshall M, Knowles GP, Chaffee AL, Batten SR, Turner DR. 2018. High-Connectivity Approach to a Hydrolytically Stable Metal-Organic Framework for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas. CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, vol. 30(19), 6614-6618. link> doi> full text>
  • Gillen DM, Hawes CS, Gunnlaugsson T. 2018. Solution-State Anion Recognition, and Structural Studies, of a Series of Electron-Rich meta-Phenylene Bis(phenylurea) Receptors and Their Self-Assembled Structures. Journal of Organic Chemistry. link> doi> link> full text>
  • Hawes CS, Ó Máille GM, Byrne K, Schmitt W, Gunnlaugsson T. 2018. Tetraarylpyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrroles as versatile and responsive fluorescent linkers in metal-organic frameworks. Dalton Trans, vol. 47(30), 10080-10092. link> doi> full text>
  • Hawes CS, Byrne K, Schmitt W, Gunnlaugsson T. 2018. The 4-pyridonyl group as a multifunctional electron donor in 1,8-naphthalimide-based photoluminescent and mechanically interlocked coordination compounds. MATERIALS CHEMISTRY FRONTIERS, vol. 2(7), 1366-1373. link> doi> full text>
  • Engstrom JR, Savyasachi AJ, Parhizkar M, Sutti A, Hawes CS, White JM, Gunnlaugsson T, Pfeffer FM. 2018. Norbornene chaotropic salts as low molecular mass ionic organogelators (LMIOGs). Chem Sci, vol. 9(23), 5233-5241. link> doi> full text>
  • Shanmugaraju S, la Cour Poulsen B, Arisa T, Umadevi D, Dalton HL, Hawes CS, Estalayo-Adrián S, Savyasachi AJ, Watson GW, Williams DC, Gunnlaugsson T. 2018. Synthesis, structural characterisation and antiproliferative activity of a new fluorescent 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide Tröger's base-Ru(ii)-curcumin organometallic conjugate. Chem Commun (Camb), vol. 54(33), 4120-4123. link> doi> full text>
  • Lynes AD, Hawes CS, Byrne K, Schmitt W, Gunnlaugsson T. 2018. Coordination chemistry of flexible benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide derived carboxylates; notable structural resilience and vaguely familiar packing motifs. Dalton Trans, vol. 47(15), 5259-5268. link> doi> full text>
  • McCarney EP, Hawes CS, Kitchen JA, Byrne K, Schmitt W, Gunnlaugsson T. 2018. A Lanthanide Luminescent Cation Exchange Material Derived from a Flexible Tricarboxylic Acid 2,6-Bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (btp) Tecton. Inorg Chem, vol. 57(7), 3920-3930. link> doi> full text>
  • Auckett JE, Duyker SG, Izgorodina EI, Hawes CS, Turner DR, Batten SR, Peterson VK. 2018. Anisotropic Thermal and Guest-Induced Responses of an Ultramicroporous Framework with Rigid Linkers. Chemistry, vol. 24(19), 4774-4779. link> doi> full text>
  • Shanmugaraju S, Hawes CS, Savyasachi AJ, Blasco S, Kitchen JA, Gunnlaugsson T. 2017. Supramolecular coordination polymers using a close to 'V-shaped' fluorescent 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide Tröger's base scaffold. Chem Commun (Camb), vol. 53(93), 12512-12515. link> doi>
  • Shanmugaraju S, McAdams D, Pancotti F, Hawes CS, Veale EB, Kitchen JA, Gunnlaugsson T. 2017. One-pot facile synthesis of 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide derived Tröger's bases via a nucleophilic displacement approach. Org Biomol Chem, vol. 15(35), 7321-7329. link> doi>
  • Emerson AJ, Hawes CS, Knowles GP, Chaffee AL, Batten SR, Turner DR. 2017. Coordination polymers from a flexible alkyldiamine-derived ligand. CRYSTENGCOMM, vol. 19(34), 5137-5145. link> doi>
  • Klein-Hitpass M, Lynes AD, Hawes CS, Byrne K, Schmitt W, Gunnlaugsson T. 2018. A Schiff-base cross-linked supramolecular polymer containing diiminophenol compartments and its interaction with copper(II) ions. SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY, vol. 30(2), 93-102. link> doi>
  • Dalton HL, Hawes CS, Gunnlaugsson T. 2017. Crystal Engineering of 6-Carboxy-4-aryl-2,2 '-bipyridine Complexes: Potent Chelators with Intrinsic Intermolecular Affinity. CRYSTAL GROWTH & DESIGN, vol. 17(8), 4365-4376. link> doi>
  • Hsu C-W, Longhi E, Sinn S, Hawes CS, Young DC, Kruger PE, Cola LD. 2017. Pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinoline Ligand-Based Iridium(III) Complexes for Electrochemiluminescence. Chem Asian J, vol. 12(13), 1649-1658. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS, Lynes AD, Byrne K, Schmitt W, Ryan G, Möbius ME, Gunnlaugsson T. 2017. A resilient and luminescent stimuli-responsive hydrogel from a heterotopic 1,8-naphthalimide-derived ligand. Chem Commun (Camb), vol. 53(44), 5989-5992. link> doi> full text>
  • Nolvachai Y, Kulsing C, Hawes CS, Batten SR, Turner DR, Marriott PJ. 2017. Selectivity differences of coordination compound stationary phases for polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polar analytes in gas and liquid phases. J Chromatogr A, vol. 1500, 167-171. link> doi>
  • Barry DE, Hawes CS, Byrne JP, la Cour Poulsen B, Ruether M, O'Brien JE, Gunnlaugsson T. 2017. A folded [2 × 2] metallo-supramolecular grid from a bis-tridentate (1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-picolinamide (tzpa) ligand. Dalton Trans, vol. 46(19), 6464-6472. link> doi> full text>
  • Hawes CS and Gunnlaugsson T. 2017. Multichannel Luminescent Lanthanide Polymers as Ratiometric Sensors for D2O. CHEM, vol. 2(4), 463-465. link> doi>
  • Lynes AD, Hawes CS, Ward EN, Haffner B, Moebius ME, Byrne K, Schmitt W, Pal R, Gunnlaugsson T. 2017. Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide n-alkyl ester and carboxylic acid derivatives: tuneable structural, morphological and thermal properties. CRYSTENGCOMM, vol. 19(10), 1427-1438. link> doi>
  • Ako AM, Hawes CS, Twamley B, Schmitt W. 2017. Facile adaptation of 1D Mn(II) chain motifs to form 3D azo-pyridine-based coordination polymers. CRYSTENGCOMM, vol. 19(6), 994-1000. link> doi>
  • Lovitt JI, Hawes CS, Lynes AD, Haffner B, Moebius ME, Gunnlaugsson T. 2017. Coordination chemistry of N-picolyl-1,8-naphthalimides: colourful low molecular weight metallo-gelators and unique chelation behaviours. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY FRONTIERS, vol. 4(2), 296-308. link> doi> full text>
  • Hawes CS, Byrne K, Schmitt W, Gunnlaugsson T. 2016. Flexible Porous Coordination Polymers from Divergent Photoluminescent 4-Oxo-1,8-naphthalimide Ligands. Inorg Chem, vol. 55(21), 11570-11582. link> doi> full text>
  • Hawes CS, Knowles GP, Chaffee AL, White KF, Abrahams BF, Batten SR, Turner DR. 2016. Porous Polyrotaxane Coordination Networks Containing Two Distinct Conformers of a Discontinuously Flexible Ligand. Inorg Chem, vol. 55(20), 10467-10474. link> doi> full text>
  • Barry DE, Hawes CS, Blasco S, Gunnlaugsson T. 2016. Structure Direction, Solvent Effects, and Anion Influences in Halogen-Bonded Adducts of 2,6-Bis(iodoethynyl)pyridine. CRYSTAL GROWTH & DESIGN, vol. 16(9), 5194-5205. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS, Hamilton SE, Hicks J, Knowles GP, Chaffee AL, Turner DR, Batten SR. 2016. Coordination Chemistry and Structural Dynamics of a Long and Flexible Piperazine-Derived Ligand. Inorg Chem, vol. 55(13), 6692-6702. link> doi>
  • McCarney EP, Hawes CS, Blasco S, Gunnlaugsson T. 2016. Synthesis and structural studies of 1,4-di(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazole and its transition metal complexes; a versatile and subtly unsymmetric ligand. Dalton Trans, vol. 45(25), 10209-10221. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS and Kruger PE. 2015. Metallosupramolecular architectures based upon new 2-(1-pyrazolyl)-benzimidazole chelating ligands. SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY, vol. 27(11-12), 757-771. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS, Chilton NF, Moubaraki B, Knowles GP, Chaffee AL, Murray KS, Batten SR, Turner DR. 2015. Coordination polymers from a highly flexible alkyldiamine-derived ligand: structure, magnetism and gas adsorption studies. Dalton Trans, vol. 44(40), 17494-17507. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS, Knowles G, Chaffee A, Turner D, Batten S. 2015. Modulating porosity through conformer-dependent hydrogen bonding in copper (II) coordination polymers. Crystal Growth and Design, vol. 15(7), 3417-3425. doi>
  • Bryant MR, Burrows AD, Fitchett CM, Hawes CS, Hunter SO, Keenan LL, Kelly DJ, Kruger PE, Mahon MF, Richardson C. 2015. The synthesis and characterisation of coordination and hydrogen-bonded networks based on 4-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)benzoic acid. Dalton Trans, vol. 44(19), 9269-9280. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS, White KF, Abrahams BF, Knowles GP, Chaffee AL, Batten SR, Turner DR. 2015. Structural chemistry and selective CO2 uptake of a piperazine-derived porous coordination polymer. CRYSTENGCOMM, vol. 17(10), 2196-2203. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS and Kruger PE. 2014. Discrete and polymeric Cu(II) complexes featuring substituted indazole ligands: their synthesis and structural chemistry. Dalton Trans, vol. 43(43), 16450-16458. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS, Moubaraki B, Murray KS, Kruger PE, Turner DR, Batten SR. 2014. Exploiting the Pyrazole-Carboxylate Mixed Ligand System in the Crystal Engineering of Coordination Polymers. CRYSTAL GROWTH & DESIGN, vol. 14(11), 5749-5760. link> doi>
  • Boer SA, Nolvachai Y, Kulsing C, McCormick LJ, Hawes CS, Marriott PJ, Turner DR. 2014. Liquid-phase enantioselective chromatographic resolution using interpenetrated, homochiral framework materials. Chemistry, vol. 20(36), 11308-11312. link> doi>
  • McCormick LJ, Duyker SG, Thornton AW, Hawes CS, Hill MR, Peterson VK, Batten SR, Turner DR. 2014. Ultramicroporous MOF with High Concentration of Vacant Cu-II Sites. CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, vol. 26(15), 4640-4646. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS and Kruger PE. 2014. Dimensionality Variation in Dinuclear Cu(II) Complexes of a Heterotritopic Pyrazolate Ligand. CRYSTALS, vol. 4(1), 32-41. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS, Chen C, Tran A, Turner DR. 2014. Hydrogen-Bonding Motifs in Piperazinediium Salts. CRYSTALS, vol. 4(1), 53-63. link> doi>
  • Boer SA, Hawes CS, Turner DR. 2014. Engineering entanglement: controlling the formation of polycatenanes and polyrotaxanes using π interactions. Chem Commun (Camb), vol. 50(9), 1125-1127. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS, Nolvachai Y, Kulsing C, Knowles GP, Chaffee AL, Marriott PJ, Batten SR, Turner DR. 2014. Metal-organic frameworks as stationary phases for mixed-mode separation applications. Chem Commun (Camb), vol. 50(28), 3735-3737. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS and Kruger PE. 2014. Preparation of open and closed forms of the lvt network with Cu(II) complexes of structurally related 1,2-diazole ligands dagger. RSC ADVANCES, vol. 4(30), 15770-15775. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS, Batten SR, Turner DR. 2014. Self-assembly of discrete and polymeric metallosupramolecular architectures from cyclen-derived ligands. CRYSTENGCOMM, vol. 16(18), 3737-3748. link> doi>
  • Beeching LJ, Hawes CS, Turner DR, Batten SR. 2014. The influence of anion, ligand geometry and stoichiometry on the structure and dimensionality of a series of Ag-I-bis(cyanobenzyl)piperazine coordination polymers. CRYSTENGCOMM, vol. 16(28), 6459-6468. link> doi>
  • Kelly NR, Goetz S, Hawes CS, Kruger PE. 2013. Acid directed in situ oxidation and decarboxylation of 4,4 ',6,6 '-tetra- methyl-2,2 '-bipyridine: Synthesis and structural characterisation of 4,4 ',6-tri-carboxy-2,2 '-bipyridine and its copper(II) coordination polymer. INORGANICA CHIMICA ACTA, vol. 403, 102-109. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS and Kruger PE. 2013. Synthesis and characterisation of dinuclear Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) unsaturated helical complexes from a novel dipyridyl-bispyrazole ligand. POLYHEDRON, vol. 52, 255-260. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS and Kruger PE. 2013. Discrete and Polymeric Cu(II) Coordination Complexes with a Flexible bis-(pyridylpyrazole) Ligand: Structural Diversity and Unexpected Solvothermal Reactivity. AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, vol. 66(4), 401-408. link> doi>
  • Russell ME, Hawes CS, Ferguson A, Polson MIJ, Chilton NF, Moubaraki B, Murray KS, Kruger PE. 2013. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterisation of iron(II/III), cobalt(II) and copper(II) cluster complexes of the polytopic ligand: N-(2-pyridyl)-3-carboxypropanamide. Dalton Trans, vol. 42(37), 13576-13583. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS, Fitchett CM, Batten SR, Kruger PE. 2012. Synthesis and structural characterisation of a Co(II) coordination polymer incorporating a novel dicarboxy-Trogers base/bis-pyrazole mixed ligand system. INORGANICA CHIMICA ACTA, vol. 389, 112-117. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS, Babarao R, Hill MR, White KF, Abrahams BF, Kruger PE. 2012. Hysteretic carbon dioxide sorption in a novel copper(II)-indazole-carboxylate porous coordination polymer. Chem Commun (Camb), vol. 48(94), 11558-11560. link> doi>
  • Hawes CS, Fitchett CM, Kruger PE. 2012. Synthesis of an Fe(II) dinuclear triple helicate from a novel -bis-(N-pyrazolyl)pyridine ligand, [Fe2L3](4+): solution and solid-state studies. SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY, vol. 24(8), 553-562. link> doi>
  • Thompson JR, Archer RJ, Hawes CS, Ferguson A, Wattiaux A, Mathonière C, Clérac R, Kruger PE. 2012. Thermally and photo-induced spin crossover behaviour in an Fe(II) imidazolylimine complex: [FeL3](ClO4)2. Dalton Trans, vol. 41(41), 12720-12725. link> doi>
  • Kelly NR, Goetz S, Hawes CS, Kruger PE. 2011. A simple and environmentally benign synthesis of polypyridine-polycarboxylic acids. TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 52(9), 995-998. link> doi>
  • Archer RJ, Hawes CS, Jameson GNL, McKee V, Moubaraki B, Chilton NF, Murray KS, Schmitt W, Kruger PE. 2011. Partial spin crossover behaviour in a dinuclear iron(II) triple helicate. Dalton Trans, vol. 40(45), 12368-12373. link> doi>
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