Software and Systems Engineering

We research methods for designing and creating complex systems and products, with a focus on evidence-based engineering, user-centred design, analytics, knowledge engineering, and cultural and health informatics, and computational biology

We carry out research in the areas of empirical software engineering, complex systems, computational systems, knowledge modelling, user-centred design (UCD), "Big Data" analytics, computing education and e-Learning and biological system design. We also have research interests in signal processing, cultural informatics, patient monitoring systems and in wearable and pervasive computing.

Research Areas

Evidence Based Software Engineering

Our Evidence Based Software Engineering (EBSE) research has built on the foundational paper presented by Kitchenham in 2004 at the 26th International Conference on Software Engineering. Our research has focused on transferring evidence-based practices to software engineering and in particular we are addressing methodological aspects of the systematic (literature) review process.

We have undertaken systematic reviews across a range of topics including software metrics research, global software development, the UML and methodological aspects of the systematic review process. Methodological studies have addressed such topics as search strategies, completeness, reliability and repeatability of systematic reviews.

A major outcome of our research is a set of recommendations for updating guidelines for systematic reviews. The updated guidelines form part of a book on EBSE: Kitchenham, B.A., Budgen, D. and Brereton, P., 2015. Evidence-Based Software engineering and systematic reviews (Vol. 4). CRC Press.

Complex Systems

We have been involved in the design and implementation of  complex software systems for industrial applications and made significant contributions to a major international project on intelligent (holonic) manufacturing systems. The underlying software architecture has also been applied to a number of information integration applications and provides a basis for many data-intensive systems. 

"Big Data" Analytics

We have recently been involved with research that has investigated the potential of twitter to detect disease outbreaks such as Swine Flu and determine hay fever seasons within the UK. In collaboration with CeRC at City University, we collected over 3 million tweets that contain the word "flu" and showed that activity on twitter can predict swine flu outbreaks up to 1-2 weeks faster than conventional methods currently used by the NHS. This work has received international press coverage (e.g. The Telegraph, The Times of India), was featured by the Health Protection Agency and has been presented at 10 further international conferences (e.g. ESCAIDE, MedInfo).

Follow on work, using similar techniques, has investigated the impact of the Olympics and has been presented at the London Olympic Legacies Conference and a collaboration with the Business School at the University of Greenwich has investigated the use of social media by UK Charities. 

We also specialise in the integration of large and heterogeneous datasets. Often data are spread in many different databases and available in different formats and semantics. Unifying the meaning of data and providing a single access point can be extremely important to increase data quality and to infer information that is not possible to retrieve otherwise. We apply this approach to create integrated datasets that can then be used to inform the computational design of biological systems. Moreover, we use existing information from a well-studied bacterial organism to predict genome-scale regulatory networks in closely related but not well-known organisms.


Members of our group have investigated the use of Social Media and Web 2.0 tools to support Teaching and Learning. This has included studies into the uses of Social Bookmarking and the use of twitter by lecturers and students to support learning and engagement. As part of the Greenwich Connect Project, we have recently published a number of articles about the potential uses of Social Media tools for Learning and Teaching and Chaired a group that produced a Social Media policy for lecturers at the University of Greenwich.

We are currently investigating methods for teaching programming at all levels of education and the potential of Learning Analytics within HE.

Cultural Informatics

We are founding members of the Virtual Cuneiform Tablet Reconstruction (VCTR) Project - an international collaboration inspired by the ambition  to support virtual access to cuneiform artefacts and to reconstruct cuneiform tablets by joining virtual fragments together.

Cuneiform script is one of mankind’s earliest systems of writing. Formed by impressions on handheld clay “tablets”, it was the original portable information technology. Many thousands of fragmented cuneiform tablet have been unearthed in the last 200 years and are now distributed within and between museum collections worldwide. Their reconstruction poses a 3D “puzzle” of enormous complexity.

The VCTR Project contributes toward the solving of this puzzle in several ways: it is resourcing low-cost 3D acquisition systems, advancing automated virtual reconstruction algorithms, evolving a collaborative reconstruction environment and facilitating interactive on-line 3D archiving. Information about our system, our environment and our research results can be found at, together with a listing of our recent publications.

Pervasive and Wearable Technologies and Health Informatics

There are many opportunities and challenges associated with pervasive and wearable technologies for patient monitoring, and for health and well-being in general. We research and design systems for patient monitoring and health management. Our projects include clinical collaborations on prototype systems for 24-hour patient monitoring that perform multi-modal patient sensing, including physiological sensing, actigraphy and ambient sensing. We also acquire and quantify subjective reports, and we perform data and visual analytics on the combined datasets.  Our projects also include clinical collaborations on a smartphone and wireless sensing system, AllergiSense, that supports people with anaphylaxis management and provides feedback on their autoinjector training to improve their preparedness in the event of a life-threatening allergic reaction.

Synthetic and Systems Biology

We work at the boundaries of computing science and biology, and apply mathematical modelling techniques to understand, and design, complex biological systems. Synthetic biology is an emerging engineering discipline and borrows existing design principles such as abstraction, standardisation and modularity to facilitate the development of novel applications. We are particularly interested in genetic design automation and the application of computational approaches. One of our strengths is developing model-driven design methodologies and creating composable and molecular models of biological components to derive predictable physical systems. These models are currently available at, and one of our papers demonstrating model-driven design of biological systems was selected as the best paper in the IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology in 2014.

Knowledge representation and data standards

We are particularly keen on the development of knowledge representation techniques to utilise huge amount of ever growing information. Our research in this area includes the bridging of Semantic Web technologies and the representation of biological data. We apply ontological data integration and mining methodologies to infer useful information. We also contribute to the development of data standards such as the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and Kappa. SBOL has recently emerged to electronically capture information about genetic circuits and is being adopted worldwide. SBML and Kappa are widely adopted mathematical modelling languages and we extend these languages to store metadata in order to enable further developments such as computational composition, verification and understanding of mathematical models.


Funded projects

  • E-RISK: Evidence-based risk management in global software development projects. Funded by the EU, £156,060, 2011-2013
  • EPIC: Evidence-based Practices Informing Computing, Brereton, Kitchenham and Niazi, in collaboration with D Budgen & M Goldstein, Durham. Funded by EPSRC, £180,383, 2007-2009  
  • Service-oriented software research network.  In collaboration with colleagues at King’s College London, Durham and Leeds. Funding from EPSRC, 2005
  • EBSE: Evidence-based Software Engineering, Budgen, Brereton, Kitchenham and Linkman. Funding from EPSRC £187,000, 2005 – 2007

PhD Students


  • Mr Amro Al-Said Ahmad (supervisor: Prof Peter Andras, Cloud Computing)
  • Usman Nasir (supervisor: Dr Thomas Neligwa, Cloud computing)
  • Mutiq Al Mutiq (supervisor: Dr Thomas Neligwa, Information security)
  • Mithila Wanasinghe (supervisor: Dr Thomas Neligwa, Query optimisation)
  • Abdulla Alshamsi (supervisor: Prof Peter Andras, Information security engineering)
  • Babtunde Olorisade (supervisor: Dr Peter Andras, Textmining for evidence based software engineering).

Past (since 2007)

  • Dr Boyd Duffe (supervisor: Dr Gordon Rugg, Network Analysis, 2015)
  • Dr Wijendra Gunathilake (supervisor: Dr Thomas Neligwa, Knowledge management, 2015)
  • Dr Chris Marshall (supervisor: Prof Pearl Brereton, Systematic Reviews, 2015)
  • Dr Nikki Williams (supervisor: Dr Gordon Rugg, Software Psycholgy, 2014)
  • Dr Anjan Pakhira (network analysis of large-scale software systems, 2013)
  • Dr Louis Major (supervisor: Prof Pearl Brereton, 2013)
  • Dr James Rooney (supervisor: Prof Pearl Brereton, 2013)
  • Dr Clive Jefferies (supervisor: Prof Pearl Brereton, 2011)
  • Dr Mark Turner (supervisor: Prof Pearl Brereton, 2007)
  • Dr Philip Woodall (supervisor: Prof Pearl Brereton, 2007)


We have collaborated with Professor David Budgen at Durham University and with international empirical software engineering researchers on many projects. Currently, Professor Barbara Kitchenham is working with Dr Lech Madeyski of Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland, on reproducible research.

Dr Ed de Quincey is currently working with the Business School at the University of Greenwich on a project related to charities usage of social media and researchers in the School of Humanities at Keele on a project related to the politics of appropriation in social media.

Dr Sandra Woolley is currently collaborating on patient monitoring technology and smartphone sensing research with engineers at Birmingham City University and Manchester Metropolitan University, Health and Sport Science researchers at the University of Birmingham and clinical staff at five UK hospitals. On cultural informatics, she also collaborates with researchers of Assyriology, notably Dr Erlend Gehlken of Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Germany, and with Computer Science researchers at York University and at Nottingham Ningbo, China.

Dr Goksel Misirli collaborates with Prof. Anil Wipat from Newcastle University, UK and Prof. Chris Myers from Utah University, US on model-driven design of biological systems and the development of platform technologies to store genetic circuit design information. He is also working with Prof. Vincent Danos from Edinburgh University, UK regarding the application of rule-based models and semantic annotations in computational design of biological systems. Dr Misirli is a member of the Synthetic Biology Open Language Developers and the Computational Modelling in Biology Network (COMBINE), and contributes to the development of data standards.


Ahmad, AA-S and Brereton, OP and Andras, PE (2017) A Systematic Mapping Study of Empirical Studies on Software Cloud Testing Methods. In: International Workshop on Automation Testing of Cyber-Physical Systems in the Cloud (cpsATcloud), 25-29 July 2017, Prague, Czech Republic. (In Press)

L Hernandez-Munoz, S Woolley, D Luyt, G Stiefel, K Kirk, N Makwana, C Melchior, T Dawson, G Wong, T Collins, L Diwakar Evaluation of AllergiSense Smartphone Tools for Adrenaline Injection Training. IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics (in press), 2017

E Gehlken, T Collins, SI Woolley, L Hanes, A Lewis, L Hernandez-Munoz, E Ch'ng From Uruk to Ur: Automated Matching of Virtual Tablet Fragments. Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, 2016

Garsten, N and de Quincey, E and Bruce, I  (2016) The Importance and Art of Articulating Thanks: Lessons From Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).   In:  #FuturePRoof: Edition Two.   Sarah Hall.  ISBN 9781367275843

T Collins, SI Woolley, NC Rawson, L Haroon Final‐year projects using open source OpenEEG. Computer Applications in Engineering Education 24 (1), 2016, 156–164

de Quincey, E and Turner, M and Williams, N and Kyriacou, T  (2016) Learner Analytics; The Need for User-Centred Design in Learning Analytics.  EAI Endorsed Transactions on Ambient Systems, 16 (9).  e8.  ISSN 2032-927X    

Winandy, M and Kostkova, P and de Quincey, E and St Louis, C and Szomszor, M  (2016) Follow #eHealth2011: Measuring the Role and Effectiveness of Online and Social Media in Increasing the Outreach of a Scientific Conference.  J Med Internet Res, 18.  e191 - e191.  ISSN 1438-8871 

Brereton, OP and Kitchenham, B and Madeyski, L and Budgen, D and Keung, J and Charters, S and Gibbs, S and Pohthong, A  (2016) Robust Statistical Methods for Empirical Software Engineering.  Empirical Software Engineering: an international journal.  1 - 52.  ISSN 1573-7616  

Olorisade, BK and de Quincey, E and Brereton, OP and Andras, PE  (2016) A Critical Analysis of Studies that Address the Use of Text Mining for Citation Screening in Systematic Reviews.  In: EASE 2016 20th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, 1 Jun 2016, Limerick.    

Alshamsi, A and Williams, N and Andras, PE  (2016) The Trade-off between Usability and Security in the Context of eGovernment: A Mapping Study.  In: 30th British Human Computer Interaction Conference, 11-15 Jul 2016, Bournemouth.    (In Press)

de Quincey, E and Stoneham, R  (2015) Student Engagement: An evaluation of the effectiveness of explicit and implicit Learning Analytics.  In: 12th Internaitonal ePortfolio and Identity Conference, Poitiers.  

T Collins, SI Woolley, S Aldred, S Rai Addressing the Deployment Challenges of Health Monitoring Devices for a Dementia Study. Proc. EAI Int. Conf. on Wireless Mobile Communication and Healthcare, MobiHealth 2015, 202-5

L Hernandez-Munoz, S Woolley, L Diwakar Pilot evaluation of smartphone technology for adrenaline injection training. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 45 (2), 2015, 507.

A Lewis, S Woolley, E Ch'ng, E Gehlken Observed methods of cuneiform tablet reconstruction in virtual and real world environments. Journal of Archaeological Science, 53, 2015, 156-165.

de Quincey, E and Kyriacou, T  (2015) Factors for consideration in learning analytics: an investigation into student activity on an MLE.  In: Academic Practice and Technology Conference 2015, 7 Jul 2015, Greenwich, London.

Williams, Nicola Kim  (2015) Objective predictors of subjective aesthetic ratings of web pages.  Doctoral thesis, Keele University.  

Marchall, C and Brereton, OP  (2015) Systematic Review Toolbox: A Catalogue of Tools to Support Systematic Reviews.  In: EASE '15: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, Apr 27-29, 2015, Nanjing.   

Marshall, C and Brereton, OP and Kitchenham, BA  (2015) Tools to Support Systematic Reviews in Software Engineering: A Cross-Domain Survey using Semi-structured Interviews.  In: 19th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering

Duffee, B and Andras, PE  (2015) Detecting communities of methods using dynamic analysis data.  In: Sixth International Workshop on Emerging Trends in Software Metrics, 16-24 May 2015, Florence.

E Ch'ng, SI Woolley, L Hernandez-Munoz, T Collins, A Lewis, E Gehlken The development of a collaborative virtual environment for 3D reconstruction of cuneiform tablets. IEEE International Conference on Virtual Systems & Multimedia (VSMM), 35-42.

E Gehlken, S Woolley, T Collins, E Ch'ng Automated Joining of Cuneiform Tablet Fragments. NABU: Nouvelles Assyriologiques Breves et Utilitaires 2014 (4), 119-120.

de Quincey, E., Kyriacou, T., Williams, N. and Pantin, T. (2014) Potential of Social Media to determine hay fever seasons and drug efficacy. Planet@Risk, 2(4), Special Issue on One Health: 293-297, Davos: Global Risk Forum GRF Davos

J.M. Verner, O.P. Brereton, B.A. Kitchenham, M. Turner, M. Niazi, 2014,  Risks and risk mitigation in global software development: A tertiary study, Information and Software Technology, Volume 56, Issue 1, Pages 54-78

T Collins, SI Woolley, LH Munoz, A Lewis, E Ch’ng, E Gehlken Computer-Assisted Reconstruction of Virtual Fragmented Cuneiform Tablets.
IEEE International Conference on Virtual Systems & Multimedia (VSMM), 70-77

Barbara Kitchenham and Pearl Brereton, 2013, A Systematic Review of Systematic Review Process Research in Software Engineering, Information and Software Technology, Volume 55, Issue 12, December 2013, Pages 2049–2075

David Budgen, Barbara Kitchenham, Pearl Brereton, 2013, "The Case for Knowledge Translation", Empirical Software Engineering & Metrics (ESEM) 2013.

Chris Marshall and Pearl Brereton, 2013, Tools to Support Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering: A Mapping Study, ESEM, Oct 2013

David Budgen, Barbara Kitchenham, Stuart Charters, Shirley Gibbs, Amnart Pohthong, Jacky Keung and Pearl Brereton, 2013, Lessons from Conducting a Distributed Quasi-experiment, International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, October 2013

B. Kitchenham, D.I.K. Sjøberg, T. Dybå, O.P. Brereton, D. Budgen, M. Höst and P. Runeson, 2013, Trends in the quality of human-intensive software engineering experiments – A quasi-experiment. IEEE Trans. SE, vol. 39 no. 7, pp. 1002-1017

de Quincey, E., Hocking, A., O’Gorman, A., Walker, S., Bacon, L. (2012) The use of Social Bookmarking by Health Care Students to create Communities of Practice. In: LNICST, Volume 91, Electronic Healthcare. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer. p146-153

de Quincey, E., Kostkova, P., Jawaheer, G. (2012) Promoting e-Health Resources: Lessons Learned. In: LNICST, Volume 69, Electronic Healthcare. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer. p103-110.

Szomszor, M., Kostkova, P., de Quincey, E. (2012) #swineflu: Twitter Predicts Swine Flu Outbreak in 2009. In: LNICST, Volume 69, Electronic Healthcare. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer. In: Electronic Healthcare. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer. P18-26.

Major, L., Kyriacou, T. and Brereton, O.P. 2012, Systematic Literature Review: Teaching Novices Programming Using Robots. IET Software, 6 (6), pp. 502 - 513.

Major, L., Kyriacou, T. and Brereton, P. 2012, Teaching Novices Programming Using a Robot Simulator: Case Study Protocol. In 24th Psychology of Programming Interest Group Annual Conference, London Metropolitan University, UK, November 2012. pp. 93 - 104.  

Barbara Kitchenham, Pearl Brereton, and David Budgen, 2012, Mapping study completeness and reliability – a case study. Proceedings of EASE 2012 Ciudad Real, May 2012.

J M Verner, O P Brereton, B A Kitchenham, M Turner, and M Niazi. 2012,Systematic literature reviews in global software engineering development: A tertiary study. Proceedings of EASE 2012 Ciudad Real, May 2012.

Barbara Kitchenham, Dag I.K. Sjøberg, Tore Dybå, Dietmar Pfahl, Pearl Brereton, David Budgen, Martin Höst, Per Runeson, 2012, Three Empirical Studies on the Agreement of Reviewers about the Quality of Software Engineering Experiments, Information and Software Technology 54, 804–819

David Budgen, Sarah Drummond, Pearl Brereton & Nikki Holland, 2012, What scope is there for adopting evidence-informed teaching in SE?, ICSE Education track.

de Quincey, E., Kostkova, P. Jawaheer, G., Farrell, D., McNulty, C., Weinberg, J. (2011) Evaluating the Online Activity of Users of the e-Bug Website. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2011:66(suppl 5):v45-v49

Major, L., Kyriacou, T. and Brereton, P. 2011, Simulated Robotic Agents As Tools To Teach Introductory Programming. In International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2011), Valencia, Spain, 7 - 9 March 2011. pp. 3837-3846

Major, L.; Kyriacou, T.; Brereton, O. P. 2011, "Systematic literature review: Teaching novices programming using robots,"15th Annual Conference on Evaluation & Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE 2011), pp.21-30, 11-12 April 2011, doi: 10.1049/ic.2011.0003

Barbara Kitchenham, Pearl Brereton, Zhi Li, David Budgen and Andrew Burn 2011, Repeatability of systematic literature reviews, 15th Annual Conference on Evaluation & Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE 2011), pp.46-55, 11-12 April 2011, 10.1049/ic.2011.0006

Barbara A. Kitchenham, David Budgen, Pearl Brereton, 2011, Using mapping studies as the basis for further research - A participant-observer case study, Information and Software Technology, Volume 53, Issue 6, June 2011, Pages 638-651

de Quincey, E., Kostkova, P. (2010) Early Warning and Outbreak Detection Using Social Networking Websites: The Potential of Twitter. In: LNICST, Volume 27, Electronic Healthcare. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer . p21-24.

Kostkova P, Farrell D, de Quincey E, Weinberg J, Lecky D, McNulty C. (2010) eBug-teaching children hygiene principles using educational games. Studies in health technology and informatics. 2010;160:600-604.

David Budgen, Andrew Burn, Rialette Pretorius, Pearl Brereton and Barbara Kitchenham 2010, .Empirical evidence about the UML: a systematic literature review, Software – Practice and Experience,(2010), DOI: 10.1002/spe.1009

Barbara Kitchenham, Rialette Pretorius, David Budgen, O. Pearl Brereton, Mark Turner, Mahmood Niazi and Stephen Linkman 2010, “Systematic Literature Reviews—A Tertiary Study, Information and Software TechnologyVolume 52, Issue 8, Pages 792-805

Barbara Kitchenham, Dag I.K. Sjøberg, O. Pearl Brereton, David Budgen, Tore Dybå, Martin Höst, Per Runeson and Dietmar Pfahl, 2010, Can We Evaluate the Quality of Software Engineering Experiments? , Proceedings of the Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM 2010, Bolzano-Bozen, Italy 16-17th September.

Barbara Kitchenham, Pearl Brereton, Mark Turner, Mahmood Niazi, Stephen Linkman, Rialette Pretorius and David Budgen.  2010, “Refining the Systematic Literature Review Process—Two Participant-Observer Case Studies”, Empirical Software Engineering. Volume 15, Number 6, 618-653, DOI: 10.1007/s10664-010-9134-8

Barbara Kitchenham and Pearl Brereton, 2010, Problems Adopting Metrics from Other Disciplines, Workshop on Emerging Trends in Software Metrics, May 2010, Cape Town, South Africa, ACM, pp 1-7.

Mark Turner, Barbara Kitchenham, Pearl Brereton, Stuart Charters, David Budgen, 2010,  Does the Technology Acceptance Model predict Actual Use? A Systematic Literature Review, Information and Software TechnologyVolume 52, Issue 5, Pages 463-479

Barbara Kitchenham, Pearl Brereton and David Budgen, 2010, The Educational Value of Mapping Studies of Software Engineering Literature, International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE), May 2010, Cape Town, South Africa, ACM, pp 589-598

Barbara Kitchenham, David Budgen and Pearl Brereton 2010, The value of mapping studies – A participant-observer case study, in Proceedings  EASE 2010, BCS - eWiC

Woodall P. and Brereton P. 2010,  A Systematic Literature Review of Inference Strategies, Int. J. Information and Computer Security,  International Journal of Information and Computer Security (IJICS), Vol. 4, No. 2, 2010

MacDonell S, Shepperd M, Kitchenham B, Mendes E., 2010, How Reliable Are Systematic Reviews in Empirical Software Engineering?, IEEE Trans. SE, 36(5):676-687 Sep 2010

Kitchenham B., 2010, What's up with software metrics? - A preliminary mapping study, J SYST SOFTWARE, 83(1), 37-51 Jan 2010

Niazi, M. 2009, What can Undermine Software Process Improvement Implementation Initiatives, /CrossTalk/, The Journal of Defense Software Engineering, 22(1), 24, 27

Barbara Kitchenham, O Pearl Brereton, David Budgen, Mark Turner, John Bailey and Stephen Linkman, 2009, “Systematic literature reviews in software engineering – A systematic literature review”, Information & Software Technology, 51(1), 7-15.

D Budgen, J. Bailey, M. Turner, B. Kitchenham, P. Brereton, S Charters, 2009,Cross-domain investigation of empirical practices, IET Software, Volume 3, Issue 5, p.410–421

Jefferies C., Brereton O.P. & Turner M. 2009, A Comparison of Binding Technologies for Multi-Channel Access. In Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, pp 149-154 'Techniques and Applications for Mobile Commerce Proceedings of TAMoCo 2009.

Barbara Kitchenham, David Budgen, O. Pearl Brereton, 2009, Evidence-based Software Engineering and Systematic Literature Reviews, invited paper, Journal of the Council of European Professional Informatics Societies, 2009

Barbara Kitchenham, Pearl Brereton, Mark Turner, Mahmood Niazi, Stephen Linkman, Rialette Pretorius and David Budgen, 2009,The Impact of Limited Search Procedures for Systematic Literature Reviews – A Participant-Observer Case Studyin Proceedings of 3rd International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering (ESEM), pp336-345.

Pearl Brereton, Mark Turner, Rumjit Kaur 2009, Pair programming as a teaching tool: a student review of empirical studies, in Proceedings of 22nd Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, February 2009, Hyderabad, India, IEEE Computer Society Press, pp 240-247.

David Budgen, Stuart Charters, Mark Turner, Barbara Kitchenham, O. Pearl Brereton and Stephen Linkman 2009, “Objectivity in Research: Challenges from the Evidence-Based Paradigm”, 20th Australian Software Engineering Conference, ASWEC 2009. 14-17 April 2009, IEEE Computer Society Press, pp 73-80.

Barbara Kitchenham, Pearl Brereton, David Budgen and Zhi Li 2009, “An Evaluation of Quality Checklist Proposals – A participant-observer case study”, in Proceedings of EASE 2009, BCS-eWiC.

Ali-Babar M. and Niazi M. 2008, Implementing Software Process Improvement Initiatives: An Analysis of Vietnamese Practitioners. Views, IEEE international conference on global software engineering (ICGSE 2008), 67,76

Kitchenham B.A., Brereton O.P., Owen S.C., Butcher J. and Jefferies C. 2008, “Length and readability of structured software engineering abstracts”, IET Software, 2(1), 37-45

Budgen D., Kitchenham B.A., Brereton O.P., Turner M., Charters S.C. and Linkman S.G. 2008, “Employing the evidence-based paradigm for technology-related decision making”, Evidence & Policy, 4(2), 149-169

Niazi M., Hickman C., Ali-Babar M. and Ahmad R. 2008, A Model for Requirements Change Management: Implementation of CMMI Level 2 Specific Practice, International Conference on Product Focused Software Process Improvement (PROFES), LNCS 5089, 143-157, Italy

Zhang H, Kitchenham B & Pfahl D. 2008, “Reflections on 10 Years of Software Process Simulation Modeling: A Systematic Review”, in Proceedings of International Conference on Software Process (ICSP’08), Leipzig, Germany, 10-11 May, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 345-356

Budgen D, Kitchenham B.A., Charters S., Turner M., Brereton O. P. & Linkman S. G. 2008, “Presenting Software Engineering Results using Structured Abstracts: A Randomised Experiment”, Empirical Software Engineering, 13(4), 435-468

Turner M., Kitchenham B.A, Budgen D. and Brereton O.P.,  2008, “Lessons learnt Undertaking a Large-scale Systematic Literature Review”, in Proceedings of EASE 2008, BCS-eWiC

Mahmood Niazi, Muhammad Ali Babar and Suhaimi Ibrahim, 2008, An Empirical Study Identifying High Perceived Value Practices of CMMI Level 2, International Conference on Product Focused Software Process Improvement (PROFES), LNCS 5089, 427-441, Italy

Brereton O.P., Kitchenham B.A, Budgen D. and Zhi Li, 2008, “Using a Protocol Template for Case Study Planning”, in Proceedings of EASE 2008, BCS-eWIC

Budgen D., Bailey J, Turner M., Kitchenham B.A., Brereton O.P and Charters S., 2008, “Lessons from a Cross-domain Investigation of Empirical Practices”, in Proceedings of EASE 2008, BCSeWiC,

Khan S, Niazi M., Ahmad R. 2008, A Readiness Model for Software Development Outsourcing Vendors, Doctoral Symposium, IEEE international conference on global software engineering (ICGSE 2008), India August.

Clive Jefferies, Pearl Brereton and Mark Turner 2008, A Systematic Literature Review to Investigate Reengineering Existing Systems for Multi-Channel Access, Accepted for CSMR, April 2008

Budgen D., Kitchenham B., Brereton P., Turner M., Charters S. and Linkman S. 2008, Transferring the evidence-based paradigm into technology-related decision making: Observations arising from performing a systematic review of the Technology Acceptance Model. J. of Evidence & Policy.

Kitchenham B.A, Brereton O.P, Owen S., Butcher J. and Jefferies C. 2008, Length and Readability of Structured Software Engineering Abstracts, IET Software.

Mahmood Niazi, Karl Cox and June Verner 2008, A Measurement Process for Assessing the Maturity of Requirements Engineering Process, Software Quality Journal, 6(2), 213 - 235

Staples M and Niazi M. 2008, Systematic Review of Organizational Motivations for Adopting CMM-based SPI, Information and Software Technology Journal, 50(7-8), 605-620

Staples M. and Niazi M. 2008, Experiences Using Systematic Review Guidelines, Journal of Systems and Software, 80(9), 1425-1437.

Niazi M. and Ali-Babar M. 2008, De-motivators for software process improvement: An empirical investigation, Software Process Improvement and Practice Journal, 13(3), 249-264.

Zhang H, Kitchenham B & Pfahl D. 2008, “Software Process simulation over Decade: Trends Discovery from a Systematic Review”, in Proceedings of 2nd ACM-IEEE international symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM 2008, 345-347.

Clive Jefferies, Pearl Brereton & Mark Turner 2008, “A Systematic Literature Review to Investigate Reeningeering Existing Systems for Multi-Channel Access”, in Conference on Software Maintenance and Reengineering (CSMR), Athens, April, 258-262.

David Budgen, Mark Turner, Pearl Brereton & Barbara Kitchenham 2008, “Using Mapping Studies in Software Engineering”, Proceedings of PPIG 2008, Lancaster University, 195-204.

Mark Turner, Rumjit Kaur & Pearl Brereton 2008, “A Lightweight Systematic Literature Review of Studies about the use of Pair Programming to Teach Introductory Programming”, Proceedings of PPIG 2008, Lancaster University.

Research Opportunities

Research enquires are welcome via email to Dr Sandra Woolley (

Opportunities for PhD study and/or research staff appointments are listed below:

Responsive Virtual Reconstruction Environment with Integrated Tools (self-funded):

Keele Smart Energy Network Demonstrator PhD Expression of Interest (see bottom of )

Tenure Track Research Fellowships in Energy and Sustainability

Lecturer in Computer Science