If you wish to conduct research to validate a translated version, adapt the tool, or perform psychometric testing - please contact: for permission.



Level of research

Tool links

Raimundo A, Parraca JA, Batalha N, Tomas-Carus P, Branco JC, Hill J, Gusi N


Portuguese translation

Link to article


Pierre Rocher

University of Kawzulu-Natal

Informal translation

Afrikaans translation

Laura Simons, Elizabeth Carpino, Melissa Pielech, Deirdre Logan, Rachael Coakley, Jonathan Hill

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, USA

Formal translation,  Patient face validity, Psychometrics

Adaptation for children & adolescents PPST - with scoring

For children & adolescents to self-administer PPST - to self-administer

Description of PPST measure

Mujahed Shraim

Lina Elsabbagh is currently re-doing this translation and validating it at King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam.

Informal translation

Arabic translation

Freddy Beretta Marcondes

Formal translation

Brazilian Portuguese translation


Nidia Espinoza Corvalán
Dermofunctional Clinic Tobalaba), Claudia Gonzalez Fuster (Dermatofuncional Beauty Corp Clinic),
Catherine Torrealba Cornejo
(Emergency Hospital Public Assistance), Carolina Mera Moreira
(San Jose De Maipo Hospital Complex) - San Sebastián University

Luis Henriquez Fuentes (San Sebastián University)  - Universidad de Chile



Informal translation

Chilean - Spanish Translation

Calvin Kwan

Informal translation

Chinese (traditional) translation

Simeon Grazio

Informal translation

Croatian translation

Hanne Albert and Lars Morsoe

Formal translation,  Patient face validity, Psychometrics

Danish Translation

M van Hooff, W van Lankveld, P Anderson, A Apeldoorn, F van Hartingsveld, R Ostelo

Formal translation,  Patient face validity

Dutch translation

(Psychometric testing in progress)

So Teele Kaarma-Tonne
Tartu University Hospital

 Formal translation  Estonian Translation

Jaro Karppinen


Informal translation    Finnish translation

Christophe Demoulin and Olivier Bruyere

Formal translation,  Patient face validity

French translation

(Psychometric testing in progress)

Bernhard Aebischer and Sven Karstens
Sven Karstens

Informal translation, Patient face validity, Psychometrics

German translation

Validation of the German Translation

Vicky Bills 
Department of Physiotherapy, TEI of Western Greece


Information translation   

 Greek Translation

Azimi Parisa

Patient face validity

Department of Physiotheraoy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ariel University 

Noa Ben-Ami

Informal translation

Hebrew translation

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham,
University Hospitals of Birmingham NHS Trust 

Dr Deepak Malik

Informal Translation 

Hindi translation

Krisztina Feövenyessy, Physiotherapist, Balance Gerincterápia

Informal translation

 Hungarian translation

Firmansyah Purwanto, Physiotherapist, Klinik Halmahera Medika

Informal translation

Indonesian translation

Luca Scascighini

Informal translation

Italian translation

Peta-Ann Schmidt    

Informatl translation    

isiZulu Translation

Mika Kawaguchi, Ko Matsudaira

Department of Medical Research & Management for
Musculoskeletal Pain,
22nd Century Medical and Research Center
University of Tokyo

Formal translation,  Patient face validity, Psychometrics

Japanese translation

Japanese generic condition tool

(A formal validated version is due early 2016, 
article on psychometric validation is under preparation.)

Da-yeon, Kim 

Korea Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Association   

Informal translation

 Korean translation

Shuo Luan, Chao Ma and Shaoling Wu
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital (Primary sponsor), Boji Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and Central Hospital of Guangzhou Panyu District, China

Formal translation,  Patient face validity

Mandarin translation

(A psychometric tested version is due late 2013)

Trena Youngblutt

Informal translation

Nepali translation

Ingvild Lie Indergaard

Margreth Grotle

Formal translation,  Patient face validity


Mohsen Abedi and S.J Mousavi

Formal translation

Persian translation

(Validation work in progress)

Adrian Chudyk 

Research Institute for Primary Care and Health Sciences,
Keele University

Informal translation

Polish translation

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, 
University Hospitals of Birmingham NHS Trust 

Dr Deepak Malik

Informal translation Punjabi translation

Vasiliy Tkachenko

 Informal translation Russian Translation 

Narcis Gusi and Borja del Pozo Cruz

Formal translation, 

Patient face validity

Spanish translation

Carola Betten

Formal translation,  Patient face validity

Swedish Translation

Raghu Chovvath
Sri Ramachandra University,Chennai, India

Informal translation

Tamil translation


Murat Dalkilinc
Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey

Formal translation 

Turkish translation

Usman Arshad Siddiqi


Informal translation  Patient face validity

Urdu translation

Rhian Lewis

Informal translation

Welsh translation

Emmanuel Egbewale

Informal translation

Yoruba translation



We are very grateful to our colleagues who have supplied translations. If they have formal qualifications as a translator we have described this as a formal translation. If the validity of the translated tool has been confirmed in a research setting this is also indicated. In the case of an informal translation the person supplying the translation does not have formal qualifications as a translator. As such Keele University cannot confirm the accuracy or validity of the translated tool and those using it must take responsibility for any consequences arising from its use in a clinical or research setting.


How to translate the Keele STarT Back Tool

Important: Do not begin a translation of the Keele STarT Back Tool into any foreign language/s until you have received written permission from the Arthritis Research UK Primary Care Centre, UK to proceed with the translation

We recommend that anyone wishing to translate the Keele STarT Back Tool read the following: Recommendations for the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Health Status Measures (PDF - 393 KB) from University of Minnesota

Please follow the instructions in this document and forward any queries about translating the Keele STarT Back Tool, or new translations to:

 Jonathan Hill
Arthritis Research UK Primary Care Centre
Primary Care Sciences
Keele University
+44 (0)1782 73900
When using the tool please ensure the copyright and funding statement is maintained at all times.