Dr Arumugam Mahendrasingam

Title: Reader in Physics
Phone: +44 (0) 1782 7 33312
Email: a.mahendrasingam@keele.ac.uk
Location: Lennard-Jones 1.04
Role: Physics/Astrophysics Course Director
Contacting me: Try my office or email me
Mahendrasingam_A

My first degree (BSc, Honours) in Physics was from University of Sri Lanka (Colombo Campus) in 1976. Subsequently I joined the Physics Department at University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka. I came to Keele as a PhD student in 1979 and completed PhD on “X-ray fibre diffraction studies on the polymorphism of DNA and its synthetic analogues” under the supervision of Professor Watson Fuller in 1983. I was appointed as a Research Fellow in 1982 and subsequently appointed as a Lecturer (Physics) in 1989. Later on I was promoted to Senior lecturer (1997) and Reader (2001).

The Keele Fibre Diffraction Group has an international reputation for the development and application of X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques in the investigation of molecular structure and organization in a wide range of naturally occurring and synthetic materials. As a member of Fibre Diffraction group, I have made major contribution to the development of time-resolved and microfocus X-ray techniques and to the development of neutron fibre diffraction. We also developed instrumentation for the beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) and Daresbury SRS to study the deformation of polymer materials.

My research activities in recent years are:

  1. application to time and spatially resolved x-ray diffraction techniques to investigate the structure property development in polymeric materials due to elongation flow;
  2. developing uniaxial and biaxial deformation techniques to process biodegradable polymers as alternatives to the conventional polymer materials produced from petrochemicals (collaboration with Innovia);
  3. the polymorphism associated with cocoa butter which is crucial to the high quality of chocolate confectionery (collaboration with Nestle);
  4. the application of time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of solid state phase transitions in pharmaceutical compounds as a consequence of product processing, response to environmental stress, and the presence of plasticizers( collaboration with University of Minnesota).

Selected Publications

  • MAHENDRASINGAM A, Nunes C, Suryanarayanan R. 2006. Investigation of the Multi-Step Dehydration Reaction of Theophylline Monohydrate Using 2-Dimensional Powder X-ray Diffractometry. Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 23(10), 2393-2404. doi>
  • Nunes C, Mahendrasingam A, Suryanarayanan R. 2005. Quantification of crystallinity in substantially amorphous materials by synchrotron X-ray powder diffractometry. Pharm Res, vol. 22(11), 1942-1953. link> doi>
  • MAHENDRASINGAM A, Blundell DJ, Parton M, Wright AK. 2005. Time resolved study of oriented crystallisation of poly(lactic acid) during rapid tensile deformation. Polymer , vol. 46(16), 6009-6015. doi>
  • Mahendrasingam A, Blundell DJ, Martin C, Urban V, Narayanan T, Fuller W. 2005. Time resolved WAXS study of the role of mesophase in oriented crystallisation of poly(ethylene terephthalate-co-isophthalate) copolymers. POLYMER, vol. 46(16), 6044-6049. link> doi>
  • MAHENDRASINGAM A, Blundell DJ, Fuller W, Wright AK. 2004. Time resolved WAXS/SAXS observations of crystallisation in oriented melts of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. Polymer , vol. 45(16), 5641-5652. doi>

Full Publications List show

Journal Articles

  • MAHENDRASINGAM A, Nunes C, Suryanarayanan R. 2006. Investigation of the Multi-Step Dehydration Reaction of Theophylline Monohydrate Using 2-Dimensional Powder X-ray Diffractometry. Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 23(10), 2393-2404. doi>
  • Nunes C, Mahendrasingam A, Suryanarayanan R. 2005. Quantification of crystallinity in substantially amorphous materials by synchrotron X-ray powder diffractometry. Pharm Res, vol. 22(11), 1942-1953. link> doi>
  • MAHENDRASINGAM A, Blundell DJ, Parton M, Wright AK. 2005. Time resolved study of oriented crystallisation of poly(lactic acid) during rapid tensile deformation. Polymer , vol. 46(16), 6009-6015. doi>
  • Mahendrasingam A, Blundell DJ, Martin C, Urban V, Narayanan T, Fuller W. 2005. Time resolved WAXS study of the role of mesophase in oriented crystallisation of poly(ethylene terephthalate-co-isophthalate) copolymers. POLYMER, vol. 46(16), 6044-6049. link> doi>
  • MAHENDRASINGAM A, Blundell DJ, Fuller W, Wright AK. 2004. Time resolved WAXS/SAXS observations of crystallisation in oriented melts of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. Polymer , vol. 45(16), 5641-5652. doi>
  • Fuller W, Forsyth T, and Mahendrasingam A. 2004. Water-DNA interactions as studied by X-ray and neutron fibre diffraction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. doi>
  • MAHENDRASINGAM A, Blundell DJ, Fuller W, Wright AK. 2003. Observations of structure development during crystallisation of oriented poly(ethylene terephthalate). Polymer, vol. 44(19), 5915-5925. doi>
  • Blundell DJ, Eeckhaut G, Fuller W, Mahendrasingam A, Martin C. 2002. Real time SAXS/stress-strain studies of thermoplastic polyurethanes at large strains. POLYMER, vol. 43(19), 5197-5207. link> doi>
  • Mahendrasingam A, Wright AK, Martin C, Blundell DJ, Fuller W. 2002. Synchrotron studies of molecular reorganization prior to strain-induced crystallization in polymers. ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 223, D41. link>
  • Fuller W, Mahendrasingam A, Wright AK, Martin C, Blundell DJ. 2002. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction of biaxial deformation of polymer materials. ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 223, D26-D27. link>
  • Middleton AC, Duckett RA, Ward IM, Mahendrasingam A, Martin C. 2001. Real-time FTIR and WAXS studies of drawing behavior of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films. JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, vol. 79(10), 1825-1837. link> doi>
  • Middleton AC, Duckett RA, Ward IM, Mahendrasingham A, Martin C. 2001. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. Real-Time FTIR and WAXS studies of drawing behaviour of poly(ethylene terephthalate)films, vol. 79(10), 0.
  • Blundell DJ, Mahendrasingam A, Martin C, Fuller W. 2000. Formation and decay of a smectic mesophase during orientation of a PET/PEN copolymer. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, vol. 35(20), 5057-5063. link> doi>
  • Mahendrasingam A, Blundell DJ, Martin C, Fuller W, MacKerron DH, Harvie JL, Oldman RJ, Riekel C. 2000. Influence of temperature and chain orientation on the crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) during fast drawing. POLYMER, vol. 41(21), 7803-7814. link> doi>
  • Blundell DJ, Mahendrasingam A, Martin C, Fuller W, MacKerron DH, Harvie JL, Oldman RJ, Riekel C. 2000. Orientation prior to crystallisation during drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate). POLYMER, vol. 41(21), 7793-7802. link> doi>
  • Martin C, Eeckhaut G, Mahendrasingam A, Blundell DJ, Fuller W, Oldman RJ, Bingham SJ, Dieing T, Riekel C. 2000. Micro-SAXS and force/strain measurements during the tensile deformation of single struts of an elastomeric polyurethane foam. J Synchrotron Radiat, vol. 7(Pt 4), 245-250. link> doi>
  • Mahendrasingam A, Martin C, Bingham S, Blundell DJ, Fuller W. 2000. X-ray diffraction studies of polymers at high temporal and spatial resolution using synchrotron. ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 219, U262. link>
  • Mahendrasingam A, Martin C, Fuller W, Blundell DJ, Oldman RJ, MacKerron DH, Harvie JL, Riekel C. 2000. Observation of a transient structure prior to strain-induced crystallization in poly(ethylene terephthalate). POLYMER, vol. 41(3), 1217-1221. link> doi>
  • Challis RE, Freemantle RJ, Cocker RP, Chadwick DL, Dare DJ, Martin C, Mahendrasingam A, Fuller W. 2000. Ultrasonic measurements related to evolution of structure in curing epoxy resins. PLASTICS RUBBER AND COMPOSITES, vol. 29(3), 109-118. link> doi>
  • Riekel C, Dieing T, Engstrom P, Vincze L, Martin C, Mahendrasingam A. 1999. X-ray microdiffraction study of chain orientation in poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide). MACROMOLECULES, vol. 32(23), 7859-7865. link> doi>
  • Hughes DJ, Mahendrasingam A, Martin C, Oatway WB, Heeley EL, Bingham SJ, Fuller W. 1999. An instrument for the collection of simultaneous small and wide angle x-ray scattering and stress-strain data during deformation of polymers at high strain rates using synchrotron radiation sources. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, vol. 70(10), 4051-4054. link> doi>
  • Mahendrasingam A, Martin C, Fuller W, Blundell DJ, Oldman RJ, Harvie JL, MacKerron DH, Riekel C, Engstrom P. 1999. Effect of draw ratio and temperature on the strain-induced crystallization of poly (ethylene terephthalate) at fast draw rates. POLYMER, vol. 40(20), 5553-5565. link> doi>
  • Blundell DJ, Oldman RJ, Fuller W, Mahendrasingam A, Martin C, MacKerron DH, Harvie JL, Riekel C. 1999. Orientation and crystallisation mechanisms during fast drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate). POLYMER BULLETIN, vol. 42(3), 357-363. link> doi>
  • Hughes DJ, Mahendrasingam A, Oatway WB, Heeley EL, Martin C, Fuller W. 1997. A simultaneous SAXS/WAXS and stress-strain study of polyethylene deformation at high strain rates. POLYMER, vol. 38(26), 6427-6430. link> doi>
  • Mahendrasingam A, Martin C, Fuller W, Bhagat R. 1997. Structural variation in polymer materials at high spatial resolution. ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 214, 168-POLY. link>
  • Fuller W, Mahendrasingam A, Hughes DJ, Martin C, Heeley EL, Oatway WB. 1997. Variation in SAXS and WAXS from polymer materials under industrial processing conditions. ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 214, 163-POLY. link>
  • Martin C, Mahendrasingam A, Fuller W, Harvie JL, Blundell DJ, Whitehead J, Oldman RJ, Riekel C, Engström P. 1997. Investigation of the variation in orientation and crystallinity in poly(ethylene terephthalate) containers using microfocus X-ray diffraction. J Synchrotron Radiat, vol. 4(Pt 4), 223-227. link> doi>
  • Langan P, Denny RC, Mahendrasingam A, Mason SA, Jaber A. 1996. Collecting and processing neutron fibre diffraction data from a single-crystal diffractometer. JOURNAL OF APPLIED CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, vol. 29, 383-389. link> doi>
  • Blundell DJ, MacKerron DH, Fuller W, Mahendrasingam A, Martin C, Oldman RJ, Rule RJ, Riekel C. 1996. Characterization of strain-induced crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) at fast draw rates using synchrotron radiation. POLYMER, vol. 37(15), 3303-3311. link> doi>
  • Hughes DJ, Mahendrasingam A, Heeley EL, Oatway WB, Martin C, Towns-Andrews E, Fuller W. 1996. Time-Resolved Simultaneous SAXS/WAXS of the Drawing of Polyethylene at the Daresbury SRS. J Synchrotron Radiat, vol. 3(Pt 2), 84-90. link> doi>
  • RULE RJ, MACKERRON DH, MAHENDRASINGAM A, MARTIN C, NYE TMW. 1995. TIME-RESOLVED 2-DIMENSIONAL SMALL-ANGLE X-RAY-SCATTERING STUDIES OF ORIENTED POLY(ETHYLENE-TEREPHTHALATE) (PET) USING PARACRYSTALLINE MODELING TECHNIQUES. MACROMOLECULES, vol. 28(25), 8517-8522. link> doi>
  • Mahendrasingam A, Martin C, Fuller W, Blundell DJ, Mackerron D, Rule RJ, Oldman RJ, Liggat J, Riekel C, Engström P. 1995. Microfocus X-ray Diffraction of Spherulites of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate. J Synchrotron Radiat, vol. 2(Pt 6), 308-312. link> doi>
  • MAHENDRASINGAM A, MARTIN C, FULLER W, BLUNDELL DJ, MACKERRON D, RULE RJ, OLDMAN RJ, LIGGAT J, RIEKEL C, ENGSTROM P. 1995. MICROFOCUS X-RAY-DIFFRACTION OF SPHERULITES OF POLY-3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE. JOURNAL OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, vol. 2, 308-311. link> doi>
  • LANGAN P, FORSYTH VT, MAHENDRASINGAM A. 1995. ATTENUATION CORRECTIONS FOR X-RAY AND NEUTRON FIBER DIFFRACTION STUDIES. JOURNAL OF APPLIED CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, vol. 28, 49-52. link> doi>
  • Hubbard SR, Greenall RJ, Shrive AK, Forsyth VT, Mahendrasingam A. 1994. Structure factor calculations for a side-by-side model of B-DNA. Int J Biol Macromol, vol. 16(4), 195-205. link> doi>
  • Langan P, Forsyth VT, Mahendrasingam A, Pigram WJ, Mason SA, Fuller W. 1992. A high angle neutron fibre diffraction study of the hydration of the A conformation of the DNA double helix. J Biomol Struct Dyn, vol. 10(3), 489-503. link> doi>
  • MAHENDRASINGAM A, DENNY RC, FORSYTH VT, GREENALL RJ, PIGRAM WJ, PAPIZ MZ, FULLER W. 1990. TIME-RESOLVED X-RAY FIBER DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF THE S-REVERSIBLE-B CONFORMATIONAL TRANSITION IN THE POLY [D(G-C)] POLY [D(G-C)] DOUBLE HELIX. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES, 225-236. link>
  • FORSYTH VT, MAHENDRASINGAM A, LANGAN P, PIGRAM WJ, STEVENS ED, ALHAYALEE Y, BELLAMY KA, GREENALL RJ, MASON SA, FULLER W. 1990. X-RAY AND NEUTRON HIGH ANGLE FIBER DIFFRACTION STUDIES IN THE DETERMINATION OF HYDRATION AND IONIC STRUCTURE AROUND DNA. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES, 237-248. link>
  • FULLER W, OATES CR, MAHENDRASINGAM A, FORSYTH VT, PIGRAM WJ, GREENALL RJ, OLDMAN RJ, BARRY MJ, BLUNDELL DJ. 1990. X-RAY AND NEUTRON-DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF THE STRUCTURE OF PEEK. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES, 213-224. link>
  • Forsyth VT, Mahendrasingam A, Pigram WJ, Greenall RJ, Bellamy K, Fuller W, Mason SA. 1989. Neutron fibre diffraction study of DNA hydration. Int J Biol Macromol, vol. 11(4), 236-240. link> doi>
  • FULLER W, FORSYTH VT, MAHENDRASINGAM A, PIGRAM WJ, GREENALL RJ, LANGAN P, BELLAMY K, ALHAYALEE Y, MASON SA. 1989. THE LOCATION OF WATER AROUND THE DNA DOUBLE-HELIX. PHYSICA B, vol. 156, 468-470. link> doi>
  • Mahendrasingam A, Forsyth VT, Hussain R, Greenall RJ, Pigram WJ, Fuller W. 1986. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction studies of the B in equilibrium D structural transition in the DNA double helix. Science, vol. 233(4760), 195-197. link> doi>
  • Forsyth VT, Greenall RJ, Hussain R, Mahendrasingam A, Nave C, Pigram WJ, Fuller W. 1986. X-ray high-angle fibre diffraction studies of nucleic acid structure using the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source. Biochem Soc Trans, vol. 14(3), 553-557. link> doi>
  • Mahendrasingam A, Rhodes NJ, Goodwin DC, Nave C, Pigram WJ, Fuller W, Brahms J, Vergne J. 1983. Conformational transitions in oriented fibres of the synthetic polynucleotide poly[d(AT)].poly[d(AT)] double helix. Nature, vol. 301(5900), 535-537. link> doi>
  • Mahendrasingam A, Pigram WJ, Fuller W, Brahms J, Vergne J. 1983. Conformational transitions in the synthetic polynucleotide poly[d(G-C)] . poly[d(G-C)] double-helix. J Mol Biol, vol. 168(4), 897-901. link> doi>
  • Rhodes NJ, Mahendrasingam A, Pigram WJ, Fuller W, Brahms J, Vergne J, Warren RA. 1982. The C conformation is a low salt form of sodium DNA. Nature, vol. 296(5854), 267-269. link> doi>

Other

  • Blundell DJ, Eeckhaut G, Fuller W, Mahendrasingam A, Martin C. 2004. Time-resolved SAXS/stress-strain studies of thermoplastic polyurethanes during mechanical cycling at large strains. JOURNAL OF MACROMOLECULAR SCIENCE-PHYSICS (vol. B43, pp. 125-142). link> doi>
  • Fuller W, Forsyth VT, Mahendrasingam A, Langan P, Pigram WJ, Mason SA, Wilson CC. 1996. DNA hydration studied by neutron fiber diffraction. Basic Life Sci (vol. 64, pp. 345-358). link>
  • Forsyth VT, Langan P, Whalley MA, Mahendrasingam A, Wilson CC, Giesen U, Dauvergne MT, Mason SA, Fuller W. 1996. Time-of-flight Laue fiber diffraction studies of perdeuterated DNA. Basic Life Sci (vol. 64, pp. 359-367). link>
  • LANGAN P, FORSYTH VT, MAHENDRASINGAM A, GIESEN U, DAUVERGNE MT, MASON SA, WILSON CC, FULLER W. 1995. NEUTRON FIBER DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF DNA HYDRATION. PHYSICA B (vol. 213, pp. 783-785). link> doi>
  • MAHENDRASINGAM A, MARTIN C, JABER A, HUGHES D, FULLER W, RULE R, OLDMAN RJ, MACKERRON D, BLUNDELL DJ. 1995. TIME-RESOLVED X-RAY WIDE-ANGLE SCATTERING STUDIES OF THE EFFECT OF DRAW RATE AND TEMPERATURE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORIENTATION AND CRYSTALLINITY IN PET. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS (vol. 97, pp. 238-241). link> doi>
  • FULLER W, MAHENDRASINGAM A, JABER A, MARTIN C, HUGHES D, OLDMAN RJ, BLUNDELL DJ, MACKERRON D. 1994. TIME-RESOLVED X-RAY-DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF STRUCTURAL TRANSITIONS IN ORGANIC POLYMERS USING SYNCHROTRON-RADIATION. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE IV (vol. 4, pp. 195-198). link> doi>
  • BLUNDELL DJ, MAHENDRASINGAM A, MCKERRON D, TURNER A, RULE R, OLDMAN RJ, FULLER W. 1994. ORIENTATION CHANGES DURING THE COLD DRAWING AND SUBSEQUENT ANNEALING OF PEEK. POLYMER (vol. 35, pp. 3875-3882). link> doi>
  • LANGAN P, FORSYTH VT, MAHENDRASINGAM A, ALEXEEV D, MASON SA, FULLER W. 1993. COMPLEMENTARY X-RAY AND NEUTRON FIBER DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF WATER AND CATIONS AROUND THE A-DNA DOUBLE HELIX. WATER-BIOMOLECULE INTERACTIONS (vol. 43, pp. 235-238). link>
  • MACKERRON DH, BLUNDELL DJ, TURNER DR, RULE RJ, OLDMAN RJ, MAHENDRASINGAM A, FULLER W. 1993. ISOTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF BIAXIALLY ORIENTED POLY(ETHYLENE-TEREPHTHALATE) FILM. CRYSTALLIZATION OF POLYMERS (vol. 405, pp. 577-580). link>
  • FORSYTH VT, LANGAN P, MAHENDRASINGAM A, MASON SA, FULLER W. 1993. THE LOCATION OF IONS AND WATER AROUND THE D CONFORMATION OF DNA. WATER-BIOMOLECULE INTERACTIONS (vol. 43, pp. 231-234). link>
  • LANGAN P, FORSYTH VT, MAHENDRASINGAM A, ALEXEEV D, FULLER W, MASON SA. 1992. A NEUTRON-DIFFRACTION STUDY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF WATER IN THE A-FORM OF THE DNA DOUBLE HELIX. PHYSICA B (vol. 180, pp. 759-761). link> doi>
  • FORSYTH VT, MAHENDRASINGAM A, LANGAN P, ALHAYALEE Y, ALEXEEV D, PIGRAM WJ, FULLER W, MASON SA. 1992. HIGH ANGLE NEUTRON FIBER DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF WATER AROUND THE D-FORM OF DNA. PHYSICA B (vol. 180, pp. 737-739). link> doi>
  • MAHENDRASINGAM A, ALHAYALEE Y, FORSYTH VT, LANGAN P, FULLER W, OLDMAN RJ, BLUNDELL DJ, MASON S. 1992. NEUTRON-DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF THE STRUCTURE OF PEEK. PHYSICA B (vol. 180, pp. 528-530). link> doi>
  • MAHENDRASINGAM A, FULLER W, FORSYTH VT, OLDMAN RJ, MACKERRON D, BLUNDELL DJ. 1992. X-RAY-CAMERA FOR HIGH-ANGLE AND SMALL-ANGLE X-RAY-DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF THE DRAWING AND ANNEALING OF POLYMERS AT DARESBURY SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCE. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS (vol. 63, pp. 1087-1090). link> doi>
  • MAHENDRASINGAM A, DENNY RC, FORSYTH VT, GREENALL RJ, PIGRAM WJ, PAPIZ MZ, FULLER W. 1990. TIME-RESOLVED X-RAY FIBER DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF THE S-REVERSIBLE-B CONFORMATIONAL TRANSITION IN THE POLY [D(G-C)] POLY [D(G-C)] DOUBLE HELIX. NEUTRON AND X-RAY SCATTERING : COMPLEMENTARY TECHNIQUES (vol. 101, pp. 225-236). link>
  • FORSYTH VT, MAHENDRASINGAM A, LANGAN P, PIGRAM WJ, STEVENS ED, ALHAYALEE Y, BELLAMY KA, GREENALL RJ, MASON SA, FULLER W. 1990. X-RAY AND NEUTRON HIGH ANGLE FIBER DIFFRACTION STUDIES IN THE DETERMINATION OF HYDRATION AND IONIC STRUCTURE AROUND DNA. NEUTRON AND X-RAY SCATTERING : COMPLEMENTARY TECHNIQUES (vol. 101, pp. 237-248). link>
  • FULLER W, OATES CR, MAHENDRASINGAM A, FORSYTH VT, PIGRAM WJ, GREENALL RJ, OLDMAN RJ, BARRY MJ, BLUNDELL DJ. 1990. X-RAY AND NEUTRON-DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF THE STRUCTURE OF PEEK. NEUTRON AND X-RAY SCATTERING : COMPLEMENTARY TECHNIQUES (vol. 101, pp. 213-224). link>
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