Hay, E., Barlas, P., Foster, N., Hill, J., Thomas, E., & Young, J. Is acupuncture a useful adjunct to physiotherapy for older adults with knee pain?: the "acupuncture, physiotherapy and exercise" (APEX) study [ISRCTN88597683]. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004;5:31. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-5-31

Foster, N. E., Thomas, E., Barlas, P., Hill, J. C., Young, J., Mason, E., & Hay, E. M. Acupuncture as an adjunct to exercise based physiotherapy for osteoarthritis of the knee: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2007:335(7617): 436-440. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39280.509803.BE.

Whitehurst, D. G., Bryan, S., Hay, E. M., Thomas, E., Young, J., & Foster, N. E. Cost-effectiveness of acupuncture care as an adjunct to exercise-based physical therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee. Physical Therapy 2011;91(5):630-641. doi: 10.2522/ptj.20100239

Foster, N. E., Thomas, E., Hill, J. C., & Hay, E. M. The relationship between patient and practitioner expectations and preferences and clinical outcomes in a trial of exercise and acupuncture for knee osteoarthritis. European Journal of Pain 2010;14(4):402-409. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2009.06.010

MacPherson H, Maschino AC, Lewith G, Foster NE, Witt C, Vickers AJ on behalf of the Acupuncture Trialists’ Collaboration (2013). Characteristics of acupuncture treatment associated with outcome: an individual patient meta-analysis of 17,922 patients with chronic pain in randomised controlled trials. PLoS One, Oct 11;8(10):e77438. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077438.

Vickers AJ, Cronin AM, Maschino AC, Lewith G, MacPherson H, Foster NE, Sherman KJ, Witt CM, Linde K; for the Acupuncture Trialists' Collaboration (2012). Acupuncture for chronic pain: individual patient data meta-analysis. Archives of Internal Medicine 172(19):1444-53. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3654

Konstantinou K, Beardmore R, Dunn K, Lewis M, Hider SL, Vogel S, Sanders T, Jowett S, Somerville S, Stynes S, van der Windt D, Hay EM (2012) Clinical course, characteristics and prognostic indicators in patients presenting with back and leg pain in primary care: the ATLAS study protocol. BMC Musculoskelet Disorders 13:4

Foster, N.E., Bishop, A., Thomas, E., Main, C., Horne, R., Weinman, J., Hay, E. (2008) Illness perceptions of low back pain patients in primary care: What are they, do they change and are they associated with outcome? Pain, 136: 177-187

Foster, N.E., Thomas, E., Bishop, A., Dunn, K., Main, C. (2010) Distinctiveness of psychological obstacles to recovery in low back pain patients in primary care. Pain 148, 3, pp. 398-406

Grotle M, Foster NE, Dunn KM, Croft P (2010) Are prognostic indicators for poor outcome different for acute and chronic low back pain consulters in primary care? Pain, 151(3), pp. 790-7. Epub 2010 Oct 6.

Campbell P, Foster NE, Thomas E, Dunn KM (2013). Prognostic indicators of low back pain in primary care: Five year prospective study. The Journal of Pain, Aug;14(8):873-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2013.03.013. Epub 2013 Jun 20.

Campbell P, Bishop A, Dunn KM, Main CJ, Thomas E, Foster NE (2013). Conceptual overlap of psychological constructs in low back pain. Pain Sep;154(9):1783-91. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.05.035. Epub 2013 May 29.

Foster, N. E., Healey, E. L., Holden, M. A., Nicholls, E., Whitehurst, D. G., Jowett, S., Jinks, C., Roddy, E., & Hay, E. M. A multicentre, pragmatic, parallel group, randomised controlled trial to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of three physiotherapy-led exercise interventions for knee osteoarthritis in older adults: the BEEP trial protocol (ISRCTN: 93634563). BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2014;15: 254. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-15-254

Bishop ,A., Ogollah, R.O., Bartlam, B., Barlas, P., Holden, M.A., Ismail, K.M., Jowett, S., Lewis, A.M., Lloyd, A., Kettle, C., Kigozi, J., Foster, N.E., and the EASE Back study team. Evaluating acupuncture and Standard care for pregnant womEn with BACK pain: The EASE Back pilot radomised controlled trial (ISRCTN49955124). Pilot and Feasibility Studies (2016) 2:72 DOI10.1186/s40814-016-0107-6

Bartlam ,B., Waterfield, J., Bishop, A., Holden, M.A., Barlas, P., Ismail, K.M., Kettle, C., Foster, N.E. The role of qualitative research in clinical trial development: the EASE Back study. Journal of Mixed Methods Research 2016; Published online before print July doi: 10.1177/1558689816656740 .

Bishop ,A., Holden, M.A., Ogollah, R.O., Foster, N.E. Current management of pregnancy-related low back pain: A cross-sectional survey of the UK physiotherapists. Physiotherapy 2016; 102:78-85.

Foster, N.R., Bishop, A., Bartlam, B., Ogollah, R., Barlas, P., Holden, M.A., et al. Evaluating accupuncture and standard care for pregnant women with back pain (EASE Back): a feasibility study and pilot radomised trial. Health Technology Assessment 2016 Vol. 20: No. 33 DOI

Waterfield, J., Bartlam, B., Bishop, A., Holden, M.A., Barlas, P., Foster, NE., Physical therapists' views and experiences of pregnancy-related low back pain and the role of accupuncture: a qualitative exploration. Physical Therapy 2014 Apr 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Foster, N. E., Mullis, R., Young, J., Doyle, C., Lewis, M., Whitehurst, D., & Hay, E. M. IMPaCT Back study protocol. Implementation of subgrouping for targeted treatment systems for low back pain patients in primary care: a prospective population-based sequential comparison. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2010;11: 186. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-11-186

Foster NE, Mullis R, Hill JC, Lewis M, Whitehurst DG, Doyle C, Konstantinou K, Main C, Somerville S, Sowden G, Wathall S, Young J, Hay EM; IMPaCT Back Study team. Effect of stratified care for low back pain in family practice (IMPaCT Back): a prospective population-based sequential comparison. Ann Fam Med. 2014 Mar-Apr;12(2):102-11. doi: 10.1370/afm.1625.

Sowden, G., Hill, J. C., Konstantinou, K., Khanna, M., Main, C. J., Salmon, P., Somerville, S., Wathall, S., & Foster, N. E. Targeted treatment in primary care for low back pain: the treatment system and clinical training programmes used in the IMPaCT Back study (ISRCTN 55174281). Family Practice 2012;29(1): 50-62. doi: 10.1093/fampra/cmr037

Dziedzic KS, Healey EL, Porcheret M, Ong BN, Main C, Jordan KP, Lewis AM, Edwards JJ, Jinks C, Morden A, McHugh GA, Ryan S, Finney A, Jowett S, Oppong R, Afolabi E, Pushpa-Rajah A, Handy J, Clarkson K, Mason E, Whitehurst T, Hughes RW, Croft, P, Hay EM. Implementing the NICE osteoarthritis guidelines: a mixed methods study and cluster randomised trial of a model osteoarthritis consultation in primary care - the Management of OsteoArthritis In Consultations (MOSAICS) study protocol. Implementation Science 2014 Aug 27;9(1):95. [Epub ahead of print]

Morden A, Jinks C, Ong BN, Porcheret, M Dziedzic. Acceptability of a 'guidebook' for the management of Osteoarthritis: a qualitative study of patient and clinician's perspectives. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014 Dec 13;15:427. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-15-427

Ong BN, Morden A, Brooks L, Porcheret M, Edwards J, Sanders S, Jinks C, Dziedzic KS (2014). Changing policy and practice: making sense of national guidelines for osteoarthritis. Social Science and Medicine, vol. 106, pp101-109.

Thomas E, Wilkie R, Peat G, Hill S, Dziedzic K, Croft P. The North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project – NorStOP: Prospective, 3-year study of the epidemiology and management of clinical osteoarthritis in a general population of older adults. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004;5:2.

Peat G, Thomas E, Handy J, Wood L, Dziedzic K, Myers H, Wilkie R, Duncan R, Hay E, Hill J, Croft P. (2004) The Knee Clinical Assessment Study - CAS(K). A prospective study of knee pain and knee osteoarthritis in the general population, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 5(4).

Myers H, Nicholls E, Handy J, Peat G, Thomas E, Duncan R, et al. The Clinical Assessment Study of the Hand (CAS-HA): a prospective study of musculoskeletal hand problems in the general population. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2007;8:85.

Dziedzic, K., Hill, J., Lewis, M., Sim, J., Daniels, J., & Hay, E. M. Effectiveness of manual therapy or pulsed shortwave diathermy in addition to advice and exercise for neck disorders: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial in physical therapy clinics. Arthritis & Rheumatology 2005;53(2):214-222. doi: 10.1002/art.21087

Lewis, M., James, M., Stokes, E., Hill, J., Sim, J., Hay, E., & Dziedzic, K. An economic evaluation of three physiotherapy treatments for non-specific neck disorders alongside a randomized trial. Rheumatology 2007;46(11):1701-1708. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kem245

Salisbury C, Foster NE, Bishop A et al. 'PhysioDirect' telephone assessment and advice services for physiotherapy: protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. BMC Health Serv Res 2009;9:136

Salisbury C, Montgomery AA, Hollinghurst S, Hopper C, Bishop A, Franchini A, Kaur S, Coast J, Hall J, Grove S, Foster NE. Effectiveness of PhysioDirect telephone assessment and advice services for patients with musculoskeletal problems: pragmatic randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2013 Jan 29:346:f43. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f43

Hollinghurst, S., Coast, J., Busby, J., Bishop, A., Foster, N. E., Franchini, A., Grove, S., Hall, J., Hopper, C., Kaur, S., Montgomery, A. A., & Salisbury, C. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of ‘PhysioDirect’ telephone assessment and advice services for patients with musculoskeletal problems: economic evaluation. BMJ Open 2013; 3:e003406. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003406

Bishop, A., Gamlin, J., Hall, J., Hopper, C., & Foster, N. E. PhysioDirect: supporting physiotherapists to deliver telephone assessment and advice services within the context of a randomised trial. Physiotherapy 2013;99(2):113-118. doi: 10.1016/

Foster NE, Williams B, Grove S, Gamlin J, Salisbury C. The evidence for and against ‘PhysioDirect’ telephone assessment and advice services. Physiotherapy 2011;97:78 – 82. DOI: 10.1016/

Rathod T, Belcher J, Montgomery AA, Salisbury C, Foster N. Health services changes: is a run-in period necessary before evaluation in randomised clinical trials? Trials 2014 Jan 30;15:41. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-15-4

Dziedzic, K. S., Hill, S., Nicholls, E., Hammond, A., Myers, H., Whitehurst, T., Bailey, J., Clements, C., Whitehurst, D. G., Jowett, S., Handy, J., Hughes, R. W., Thomas, E., & Hay, E. M. Self management, joint protection and exercises in hand osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial with cost effectiveness analyses. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2011;12: 156. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-12-156

Dziedzic, K., Nicholls, E., Hill, S., Hammond, A., Handy, J., Thomas, E., & Hay, E. Self-management approaches for osteoarthritis in the hand: a 2x2 factorial randomised trial. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2013 Oct 9 doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-203938 [Epub ahead of print]

Hay EM, Thomas E, Paterson SM, Dziedzic K, Croft PR. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injection and physiotherapy for the treatment of new episodes of unilateral shoulder pain in primary care. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2003;62:394-399.

Dziedzic, K., Stevenson, K., Thomas, E., Sim, J., & Hay, E. Development and implementation of a physiotherapy intervention for use in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial in primary care for shoulder pain. Musculoskeletal Care 2009;7(2):67-77. doi: 10.1002/msc.151

James M, Stokes EA, Thomas E, Dziedzic K, Hay EM. Cost minimisation analysis of local corticosteroid injection and physiotherapy for the treatment of new episodes of unilateral shoulder pain in primary care. Rheumatology 2005;44:1447-1451.

Thomas E, Croft PR, Paterson SM, Dziedzic K, Hay EM. What influences participants' treatment preference and can it influence outcome? Results from a primary care-based randomised trial for shoulder pain. British Journal of General Practice 2004;54:93-96.

Hay, E. M., Dunn, K. M., Hill, J. C., Lewis, M., Mason, E. E., Konstantinou, K., Sowden, G., Somerville, S., Vohora, K., Whitehurst, D., & Main, C. J. A randomised clinical trial of subgrouping and targeted treatment for low back pain compared with best current care. The STarT Back Trial Study Protocol. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008;9:58. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-9-58

Hill, J. C., Whitehurst, D. G., Lewis, M., Bryan, S., Dunn, K. M., Foster, N. E., Konstantinou, K., Main, C. J., Mason, E., Somerville, S., Sowden, G., Vohora, K., & Hay, E. M. Comparison of stratified primary care management for low back pain with current best practice (STarT Back): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2011;378(9802):1560-1571. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(11)60937-9

Main, C. J., Sowden, G., Hill, J. C., Watson, P. J., & Hay, E. M. Integrating physical and psychological approaches to treatment in low back pain: the development and content of the STarT Back trial's 'high-risk' intervention (StarT Back; ISRCTN 37113406). Physiotherapy 2012;98(2):110-116. doi: 10.1016/

Whitehurst, D. G., Bryan, S., Lewis, M., Hill, J. C., Hay, E. M. Exploring the cost-utility of stratified primary care management for low back pain compared with current best practice within risk-defined subgroups. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2012; 71(11):1796-802.

Hill, J. C., Dunn, K. M., Main, C. J., Hay, E. M. Subgrouping low back pain: A comparison of the STarT Back Tool with the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire. European Journal of Pain 2010;14(1):83-89. doi:10.1016/j.ejpain.2009.01.003

Hill, J.C. The early identification of patients with complex back pain problems. The Back Care Journal. Spring 2010.

Hill, J. C., Vohora, K., Dunn, K. M., Main, C. J., & Hay, E. M. Comparing the STarT Back Screening Tool's Subgroup Allocation of Individual Patients With That of Independent Clinical Experts. Clinical Journal of Pain 2010;26(9):783-787. doi: 710.1097/AJP.1090b1013e3181f1018aac.

Hill JC, Dunn KM, Lewis M, Mullis R, Main CJ, Foster NE, et al. A primary care back pain screening tool: identifying patient subgroups for initial treatment. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2008;59(5):632–41.

Bishop, A., Tooth, S., Protheroe, J., Salisbury, C., Ogollah, R.O., Jowett, S., Hay, E.M., Foster, N.E., and on behalf of the STEMS study team. A pilot cluster radomised controlled trial to investigate the addition of direct access to physiotherapy to usual GP-led primary care for adults with musculoskeletal pain: the STEMS pilot trial protocol (ISRCTN23378642). Pilot and Feasibility Studies 2015, 1:26 doi: 10.1186/s40814-015-0020-4

Roddy, E., Zwierska, I., Hay, E. M., Jowett, S., Lewis, M., Stevenson, K., van der Windt, D., & Foster, N. E. Subacromial impingement syndrome and pain: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of exercise and corticosteroid injection (the SUPPORT trial). BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2014;15:81. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-15-81

Bishop, A., Wynne-Jones, G., Lawton, S. A., van der Windt, D., Main, C., Sowden, G., Burton, A. K., Lewis, M., Jowett, S., Sanders, T., Hay, E. M., & Foster, N. E. Rationale, design and methods of the Study of Work and Pain (SWAP): a cluster randomised controlled trial testing the addition of a vocational advice service to best current primary care for patients with musculoskeletal pain (ISRCTN 52269669). BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2014;15: 232. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-15-232

Chesterton, L. S., van der Windt, D. A., Sim, J., Lewis, M., Mallen, C. D., Mason, E. E., Warlow, C., Vohora, K., & Hay, E. M. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the management of tennis elbow: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial: the TATE trial (ISRCTN 87141084). BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009;10: 156. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-10-156

Chesterton, L. S., Lewis, A. M., Sim, J., Mallen, C. D., Mason, E. E., Hay, E. M., & van der Windt, D. A. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation as adjunct to primary care management for tennis elbow: pragmatic randomised controlled trial (TATE trial). BMJ 2013;347:f5160. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f5160

Hay, E.M., Paterson, S.M., Lewis, M., Hosie, G., Croft, P. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injection and naproxen for treatment of lateral epicondylitis of elbow in primary care. BMJ 1999;319:964-968.

Lewis, M., Hay, E., Paterson, S., Croft, P. Local Steroid Injections for Tennis Elbow: Does the Pain Get Worse Before it Gets Better?: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial. Clinical Journal of Pain 2005;21(4):330-334.

Lewis, M., Hay, E.M., Paterson, S.M., Croft, P. Effects of manual work on recovery from lateral epicondylitis. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health 2002;28(2):109-116.

Hay, E. M., Mullis, R., Lewis, M., Vohora, K., Main, C. J., Watson, P., Dziedzic, K. S., Sim, J., Minns Lowe, C., Croft, P. R. Comparison of physical treatments versus a brief pain management programme for back pain in primary care: a randomised clinical trial in physiotherapy practice. Lancet 2005;365:2024–2030.

Whitehurst, D. G., Lewis, M., Yao, G. L., Bryan, S., Raftery, J. P., Mullis, R., & Hay, E. M. A brief pain management program compared with physical therapy for low back pain: results from an economic analysis alongside a randomized clinical trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2007;57(3):466-473. doi: 10.1002/art.22606

Mullis, R., Dziedzic, K. S., Lewis, M., Minns Lowe, C. J., Main, C. J., Watson, P. J., Hay, E. M. Validation of complex interventions in a low back pain trial: selective video analysis cross-referenced to clinical case notes. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2006;27(5): 404-412. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2006.05.004

Hay, E. M., Foster, N. E., Thomas, E., Peat, G., Phelan, M., Yates, H. E., Blenkinsopp, A., & Sim, J. Effectiveness of community physiotherapy and enhanced pharmacy review for knee pain in people aged over 55 presenting to primary care: pragmatic randomised trial. BMJ 2006;333(7576):995. doi: 10.1136/bmj.38977.590752.0B

Phelan, M., Blenkinsopp, A., Foster, N. E., Thomas, E., Hay, E. M. Pharmacist-led medication review for knee pain in older adults: content, process and outcomes, International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2008;16:347-355.