Dr Mirna Mourtada-Maarabouni

Title: Lecturer in Bioscience
Phone: +44 (0)1782 733679
Email: m.m.maarabouni@keele.ac.uk
Location: Huxley Building : 303A
Role: Programme Director (Pre-Master's in Biomedical Science); Admission Tutor (Pre-Master's in Biomedical Science); Year Two Tutor (Human Biology); Study Abroad Tutor
Contacting me: Try my office or arrange an appointment by e-mail.
mirna maarabouni

I was appointed at Keele as a Lecturer in the School of Life Sciences in August 2009. Prior to this, I obtained a first class BSc (Hons) in Biochemistry in 1995 and a PhD in cellular pharmacology in 1998, both from Keele. I subsequently was employed as a post-doctoral research fellow in the Apoptosis Research Group led by Prof Gwyn Williams, where my work involved identifying and studying novel molecules which control apoptosis, in order to define new drug targets for the therapy of cancer and other human diseases where apoptosis control is dysfunctional.

Since starting my lecturer post, I became interested in educational research and in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. This culminated in the completion of a Master’s Degree in Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (MATLHE) at Keele in 2011.

ISTM Research theme: Cell & Molecular Medicine 

Google Scholar:

http://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?user=9sdDdAYAAAAJ&hl=en&oi=sra

ResearchGate:

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mirna_Maarabouni

My research interests are in molecular cell biology and cell signalling i.e. investigating the way that mammalian cells function and communicate. Areas of particular interest include studying the signalling pathways involved in the cell fate decision. Currently, my work concentrates on the elucidation of the signalling pathways initiated by the modulation of the expression of a number of genes and how they eventually cause the destruction of the cell.  These genes include those that encode non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs).  I am interested in investigating the roles of ncRNAs in the death and survival of human cells and in cancer. I also have a long-standing interest in studying the role of phosphatases in cancer.

Current projects include:

  • The role of serine/threonine phosphatase in human cancer. 
  • The role of long non-coding RNAs in human cancer.
  • The role of Vacuolar ATPase subunits in breast cancer.
  • Identification of novel long non coding RNAs involved in the control of cell death and survival (Funded by Royal Society Grant).


 

 

Selected Publications

  • Mohammed H, Pickard M, Maarabouni MM. 2016. The protein phosphatase 4 - PEA15 axis regulates the survival of breast cancer. Cellular Signalling, vol. 28(9), 1389-1400. doi> link>
  • Almnaseer ZA and Maarabouni MM. 2016. NEAT1, a long non-coding RNA, controls cell survival and is up-regulated in breast cancer. European journal of cancer (vol. 61, pp. S75-S76). Elsevier. doi>
  • Maarabouni MM. 2016. Protein phosphatase 4 regulates cell survival and responses to PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors in breast cancer cell lines. European Journal of Cancer (vol. 61, pp. S169-S170). Pergamon Press Ltd.. doi> link>
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M and Williams GT. 2014. Role of GAS5 noncoding RNA in mediating the effects of rapamycin and its analogues on mantle cell lymphoma cells. Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia, vol. 14(6), 468-473. link> doi> link>
  • Hudson WH, Pickard MR, de Vera IMS, Kuiper EG, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Conn GL, Kojetin DJ, Williams GT, Ortlund EA. 2014. Conserved sequence-specific lincRNA-steroid receptor interactions drive transcriptional repression and direct cell fate. Nature Communications, vol. 5, 5395. link> doi> link>

Full Publications List show

Journal Articles

  • Mohammed H, Pickard M, Maarabouni MM. 2016. The protein phosphatase 4 - PEA15 axis regulates the survival of breast cancer. Cellular Signalling, vol. 28(9), 1389-1400. doi> link>
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M and Williams GT. 2014. Role of GAS5 noncoding RNA in mediating the effects of rapamycin and its analogues on mantle cell lymphoma cells. Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia, vol. 14(6), 468-473. link> doi> link>
  • Hudson WH, Pickard MR, de Vera IMS, Kuiper EG, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Conn GL, Kojetin DJ, Williams GT, Ortlund EA. 2014. Conserved sequence-specific lincRNA-steroid receptor interactions drive transcriptional repression and direct cell fate. Nature Communications, vol. 5, 5395. link> doi> link>
  • Pickard MR, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Williams GT. 2013. Long non-coding RNA GAS5 regulates apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. Biochim Biophys Acta, vol. 1832(10), 1613-1623. link> doi>
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M and Williams GT. 2013. Growth arrest on inhibition of nonsense-mediated decay is mediated by noncoding RNA GAS5. Biomed Res Int, vol. 2013, 358015. link> doi>
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Watson D, Munir M, Farzaneh F, Williams GT. 2013. Apoptosis suppression by candidate oncogene PLAC8 is reversed in other cell types. Curr Cancer Drug Targets, vol. 13(1), 80-91. link> doi>
  • Pickard MR, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Williams GT. 2011. Candidate tumour suppressor Fau regulates apoptosis in human cells: an essential role for Bcl-G. Biochim Biophys Acta, vol. 1812(9), 1146-1153. link> doi>
  • Maarabouni MM, Pickard, MR, Williams, GT. 2011. Candidate tumour suppressor Fau regulates apoptosis in human cells: an essential role for Bcl-G. Biochim Biophys Acta, vol. 1812(9), 1146-1153. doi>
  • Williams GT, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Farzaneh F. 2011. A critical role for non-coding RNA GAS5 in growth arrest and rapamycin inhibition in human T-lymphocytes. Biochem Soc Trans, vol. 39(2), 482-486. link> doi>
  • Maarabouni MM, Hassan AM, Williams GT. 2010. Inhibition of Human T-Cell Proliferation by mTOR antagonists requires Non-Coding RNA growth-arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5). Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 1(78), 19-28. link>
  • Hasan AM, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Hameed MS, Williams GT, Dent G. 2010. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma mediates chemotactic responses of human eosinophils to platelet-activating factor. Int Immunopharmacol, vol. 10(9), 1017-1021. link> doi>
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Hasan AM, Farzaneh F, Williams GT. 2010. Inhibition of human T-cell proliferation by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) antagonists requires noncoding RNA growth-arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5). Mol Pharmacol, vol. 78(1), 19-28. link> doi>
  • Moss EL, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Pickard MR, Redman CW, Williams GT. 2010. FAU regulates carboplatin resistance in ovarian cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer, vol. 49(1), 70-77. link> doi>
  • Maarabouni MM, Hassan AM, Williams GT, Farazaneh, F. 2010. Inhibition of Human T-Cell Proliferation by mTOR antagonists requires Non-Coding RNA growth-arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5). Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 1(78), 19-28. link> doi>
  • Inayat-Hussain SH, Wong LT, Chan KM, Rajab NF, Din LB, Harun R, Kizilors A, Saxena N, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Farzaneh F, Williams GT. 2009. RACK-1 overexpression protects against goniothalamin-induced cell death. TOXICOLOGY LETTERS, vol. 191(2-3), 118-122. link> doi>
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M and Williams GT. 2009. Protein phosphatase 4 regulates apoptosis in leukemic and primary human T-cells. Leuk Res, vol. 33(11), 1539-1551. link> doi>
  • Maarabouni MM. 2009. GAS5 (growth arrest-specific 5 (non-protein coding)). Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.. link>
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Pickard MR, Hedge VL, Farzaneh F, Williams GT. 2009. GAS5, a non-protein-coding RNA, controls apoptosis and is downregulated in breast cancer. Oncogene, vol. 28(2), 195-208. link> doi>
  • Pickard MR, Green AR, Ellis IO, Caldas C, Hedge VL, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Williams GT. 2009. Dysregulated expression of Fau and MELK is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res, vol. 11(4), R60. link> doi>
  • Pickard MR, Green AR, Ellis IO, Caldas C, Hedge VL, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Williams GT. 2009. Fau down-regulation inhibits breast cancer cell death and correlates with poor prognosis. Breast Cancer Research, vol. 11(4), Article 60.
  • MAARABOUNI MM, Moss EL, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Pickard MR, Redman CWE, Williams GT. 2009. Fau regulates carboplatin resistance in ovarian cancer. Genes Chromosomes and Cancer.
  • MOURTADA-MAARABOUNI M, PICKARD MR, HEDGE VL, FARZANEH F, WILLIAMS GT. 2009. GAS5, a non-protein- coding RNA, controls apoptosis and is down regulated in breast cancer. Onocogene, vol. 28(2), 195-208.
  • MOURTADA-MAARABOUNI M and WILLIAMS G. 2009. Protein phosphatatase 4 regulates apoptosis in human T-cells. Luekemia Research, vol. 33, 1539-1551.
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M and Williams GT. 2008. Protein phosphatase 4 regulates apoptosis, proliferation and mutation rate of human cells. Biochim Biophys Acta, vol. 1783(8), 1490-1502. link> doi>
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Hedge VL, Kirkham L, Farzaneh F, Williams GT. 2008. Growth arrest in human T-cells is controlled by the non-coding RNA growth-arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5). J Cell Sci, vol. 121(Pt 7), 939-946. link> doi>
  • MOURTADA-MAARABOUNI M, HEDGE VL, KIRKHAM L, FARZANEH F, WILLIAMS GT. 2008. Growth arrest in human T-cells is controlled by growth arrest specific transcript 5 (GAS5), a non-coding RNA. Cell Sci., vol. 121, 939-946. doi>
  • Williams GT, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Pickard MR, Hedge VL, Sutherland A. 2008. Investigation into the roles of novel apoptosis genes in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research 2008, vol. 10(Suppl 2), 26.
  • MOURTADA-MAARABOUNI M and WILLIAMS GT. 2008. Protein phosphatase 4 regulates apoptosis, proliferation and mutation rate of human cells. Biophys. Biochem. Acta., vol. 1783(8), 1490-1502. doi>
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Keen J, Clark J, Cooper CS, Williams GT. 2006. Candidate tumor suppressor LUCA-15/RBM5/H37 modulates expression of apoptosis and cell cycle genes. Exp Cell Res, vol. 312(10), 1745-1752. link> doi>
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Keen J, Clark J, Cooper CS, Williams GT. 2006. Candidate tumor suppressor LUCA-15/RBM5/H37 modulates expression of apoptosis and cell cycle genes. Exp Cell Res., vol. 312, 1745-1752.
  • Williams GT, Hughes JP, Stoneman V, Anderson CL, McCarthy NJ, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Pickard M, Hedge VL, Trayner I, Farzaneh F. 2006. Isolation of genes controlling apoptosis through their effects on cell survival. Gene Ther. Mol. Biol., vol. 10, 255-262.
  • Maarabouni MM and Williams GT. 2006. The antiapoptotic RBM5/LUCA-15/H37 gene and its role in apoptosis and human cancer: research update. ScientificWorldJournal, vol. 6, 1705-1712. link> doi>
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Kirkham L, Farzaneh F, Williams GT. 2005. Functional expression cloning reveals a central role for the receptor for activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1) in T cell apoptosis. J Leukoc Biol, vol. 78(2), 503-514. link> doi>
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Kirkham L, Farzaneh F, Williams GT. 2005. Functional expression cloning reveals a central role for the receptor for activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1) in T cell apoptosis. Leukoc Biol., vol. 78, 503-514.
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Kirkham L, Farzaneh F, Williams GT. 2004. Regulation of apoptosis by fau revealed by functional expression cloning and antisense expression. Oncogene, vol. 23(58), 9419-9426. link> doi>
  • Bahar A, Simpson DJ, Cutty SJ, Bicknell JE, Hoban PR, Holley S, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Williams GT, Clayton RN, Farrell WE. 2004. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Pituitary Tumor Apoptosis Gene. Mol Endocrinol., vol. 18, 1827-1839.
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Kirkham L, Farzaneh F, Williams GT. 2004. Regulation of apoptosis by fau revealed by functional expression cloning and antisense expression. Oncogene, vol. 16(23), 9419-9426.
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Kirkham L, Jenkins B, Rayner J, Gonda TJ, Starr R, Trayner I, Farzaneh F, Williams GT. 2003. Functional expression cloning reveals proapoptotic role for protein phosphatase 4. Cell Death Differ, vol. 10(9), 1016-1024. link> doi>
  • Gao HW, Mourtada M, Morgan NG. 2003. Effects of the Imidazoline binding site ligands idazoxan and efaroxan on the viability of insulin-secreting BRIN-BD11 cells. Journal of Pancreas, vol. 4(3), 117-124.
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Kirkham L, Jenkins B, Rayner J, Gonda TJ, Starr R, Trayner I, Williams GT. 2003. Functional expression cloning reveals pro-apoptotic role for protein phosphatase 4. Cell Death Differ, vol. 10, 1016-1024.
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Sutherland LC, Williams GT. 2003. Splice variant delta 6 of the candidate tumor suppressor LUCA-15/RBM5 both stimulates cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis. Genes to cell, vol. 8, 109-119.
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Sutherland LC, Williams GT. 2002. Candidate tumour supressor LUCA-15 can regulate multiple apoptosis pathways. Apoptosis, vol. 7, 421-432.
  • Gao HG, Mourtada M, Murphy S, Chan SLF, Morgan NG. 2002. Effects of imidazoline receptor ligands on islet cells. Diabetic Med.
  • MAARABOUNI MM, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Williams GT. 2002. RMB5/LUCA-15- tumour suppression by control of apoptosis and the cell cycle. The Scientific World, vol. 2, 1885-1890.
  • Chan SLF, Mourtada M, Morgan NG. 2001. Characterisation of a KATP channel-independent pathway involved in potentiation of insulin secretion by efaroxan. Diabetes, vol. 50, 340-347.
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Sutherland LC, Clark JP, Cooper CS, Williams GT. 2001. Regulation of T-cell apoptosisby sequences encoded at the LUCA-15 candidate tumour suppressor Locus. Miami Nature Biotechnology, vol. 12, 40.
  • Mourtada M, Eliott J, Smith SA, Morgan NG. 2000. Effects of imidazoline binding site ligands on the growth and viability of clonal pancreatic B-cells. Naunyn. Schmiedebeg's Arch Pharmacology, vol. 361, 146-154.
  • Williams GT, Sutherland LC, Mourtada M, Edwards SE, Cable HC, Poirer GG, Miller BA, Cooper CS. 2000. Functional Expression cloning identifies novel apoptosis regulator Luca-15. British Society for Cell Biology. Cell and Molecular Biology of Apoptosis, Article 96.
  • Morgan NG, Chan SLF, Mourtada M, Monks LR, Ramsden CA. 1999. Imidazolines and pancreatic hormone secretion. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 881, 217-228.
  • Mourtada M, Chan SLF, Smith SA, Morgan NG. 1999. Multiple effector pathways regulate the insulin secretory response to the imidazoline RX871024 in isolated rat pancreatic islets. British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 127, 1279-1287.
  • Mourtada M, Smith SA, Morgan NG. 1998. Effector systems involved in the insulin secretory responses to efaroxan and RX871024 in rat islets of Langerhans. European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 350(251), Article 528.
  • Mourtada M, Smith SA, Morgan NG. 1998. The imidazoline RX871024 induces postglandin synthesis and inhibits insulin secretion from freshly isolated islets. Diabetologia, vol. 41, 589.
  • Morgan NG, Chan SLF, Mourtada M. 1997. Imidazoline receptors in the endocrine pancreas: possible theraputic targets?. Br. J. Pharmacol., vol. 122, 184.
  • Mourtada M, Smith SA, Morgan NG. 1997. Insulin secretagogues with an imidazoline structure inhibit arginine-induced secretion from isolated rat islets of Langerhans. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 236, 162-166.
  • Mourtada M, Brown CA, Smith SA, Piercy V, Chan SLF, Morgan NG. 1997. Interactions between imidiazoline compounds and sulphonylureas in teh regulation of insulin secretion. British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 121, 799-805.
  • Mourtada M, Brown CA, Chan SLF, Smith SA, Piercy V, Morgan NG. 1997. Potentiation of sulphonylurea-induced insulin secretion by efaroxan involves blockade of 2-adrenoceptors. Diabetologia, vol. 40, 393.
  • Mourtada M, Chan SLF, Smith SA, Morgan NG. 1997. Potentiation of sulphonylurea-induced secretion by the imidazoline efaroxan results from interaction with 2-adrenoceptors rather than imidazoline binding sites. Diabetic Med, vol. 14, Article 36.
  • Morgan NG, Pallet AL, Mourtada M, Chan SLF, Clews J, Ramsden CA. 1996. Synthesis and characterisation of the pancreatic islet imidazoline binding site. Diabetologia, vol. 39, 456.

Chapters

  • MORGAN NG, CHAN SLF, MAARABOUNI M, MONKS LR, RAMSDEN CA. 1999. Imidazolines and pancreatic hormone secretion. In Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. (vol. 881).

Other

  • Almnaseer ZA and Maarabouni MM. 2016. NEAT1, a long non-coding RNA, controls cell survival and is up-regulated in breast cancer. European journal of cancer (vol. 61, pp. S75-S76). Elsevier. doi>
  • Maarabouni MM. 2016. Protein phosphatase 4 regulates cell survival and responses to PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors in breast cancer cell lines. European Journal of Cancer (vol. 61, pp. S169-S170). Pergamon Press Ltd.. doi> link>
  • Maarabouni MM. 2014. Regulation of The Cell Cycle and Cell Death by Protein Phosphatase 4 in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.
  • Maarabouni MM. 2014. NCRI Cancer Conference 2014.
  • Williams GT and Mourtada0Maarabouni M. 2008. Gas5 encodes non-coding RNA which controls apoptosis and growth arrest in human cells.
  • MOURTADA-MAARABOUNI M. 2007. GNB2L1 (guanie nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2-like 1). link>
  • Maarabouni-Mourtada M and Williams GT. 2007. Protein Phosphatase 4: A Novel Modulator of Apoptosis.
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M. 2007. RBM5 (RNA binding motif protein 5). link>
  • Maarabouni-Mourtada M and Williams GT. 2006. Role of protein phosphatise 4 in apoptosis and cell cycle regulation.
  • Maarabouni-Mourtada M and Williams GT. 2006. Role of protein phosphatise 4 in apoptosis and cell cycle regulation.
  • Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Keen J, Sutherland LS, Clark JP, Cooper CS, Williams GT. 2002. The LUCA-15/RBM5 candidate tumour supressor regulates T-cell apoptosis. Am. Ass. Cancer Res. Proc. (p. 77).
  • Morgan NG, Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Monks LK, Chan SLF. 2001. Expression of imidazoline-binding proteins in the endocrine pancreas.
  • Maarabouni MM, Mohammed H, Pickard M. Interactions between PP4 and PEA-15 in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer cells. B228. http://abstracts.ncri.org.uk/abstract/interactions-between-pp4-and-pea-15-in-the-regulation-of-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-breast-cancer-cells-2/.
  • Maarabouni MM. Role of Protein Phosphatase 4 in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. B296. http://abstracts.ncri.org.uk/abstract/role-of-protein-phosphatase-4-in-chronic-myeloid-leukaemia/.
  • Maarabouni MM, Hanson R, Sivanandan C, Ladna A. Role of Protein Phosphatase 4 Regulatory Subunits in Myeloid Leukaemia. Cancer website ( http://abstracts.ncri.org.uk/year_published/2016/?s=pp4).
  • Maarabouni MM. The long non-coding RNA NEAT1 regulates cell survival in breast cancer cell lines.
  • Maarabouni MM. The vacuolar ATPase subunit E controls apoptosis and is down-regulated in breast cancer.
  • Maarabouni MM. The vacuolar ATPase subunit E controls apoptosis and is down-regulated in breast cancer.
  • Maarabouni MM. The Vacuolar ATPase Subunit E regulates cell death in human breast cancer cells. http://abstracts.ncri.org.uk/?s=V-ATPase+E.

Year 1

  • LSC-10031 Cell and Molecular Biology
  • LSC-10040: Introduction to Human Physiology
  • LSC-10039: Human Physiology and Pathology
  • LSC-10036: Cells and organelles (Module Manager)

Year 2

  • Year Two Human Biology Tutor
  • LSC-20052 Nutrition and Energy Balance (Module Manager)
  • LSC-20005: Endocrinology and Signalling

Year 3

  • LSC-30015: Biology of Disease
  • LSC-30004: Research project (Experimental)
  • LSC-30007: Research project (Dissertation)
  • LSC 30028: Advances in Medicine
  • LSC-30030: Human Evolution
  • LSC-30010 Biochemistry in Practice
  • LSC30041 Biomedical Science and Pathology (Module Manager)

Year 4/ MSc Biomedical Blood Science

  • LSC-40033 Advanced Laboratory Techniques (Module Manager)

Zainab Almnaseer, PhD Student, joined December 2013
z.a.almnaseer@keele.ac.uk

 

almnaseer zainab

Dr Anwar M Hasan, Research Associate
a.m.hasan@keele.ac.uk
+44 (0)1782 733682 

 hasan_anwar 90x90

Ms Katerina Bountali (PhD student Joined September 2016)

 

Chloe Gawlik (MPhil Student, Joined September 2017)

 

Nadia Kavousi (PhD student, Joined November 2017

 

Previous lab members

PhD Student

Hiba Mohammed

Master Students

2017: Mathilda Abou Faycal

2016: Farah Haji Alnassay

2016: Cyntura Sivanandan

2016: Alicja Ladna

2015: Jawhar Omar

2015:  Abdi Suaad

Undergraduates

2017-18: Ryan Dimmock, Sam Longstaff, Sarah Nicholson,Emily Scanlon, Keith Turita, Rachel Ho, Swetha  Umashankar, Lindsay Coll.

2016-17: Bandeira Kevi, Jayawardena Upeshala, Lo Pui, Mackenzie Luke, Percival Shannon

2015-16: Kwai Wong, Will Smith, Arrti Sureshkumar, Chi Chair, Najeebah Zainal Ariffin, Joel Richardson

2014-5: Tasha Hunt, Aqeela Mahroof, Jade Chritchely

2013-14: Abdihakin Dirie, James Johnson, Lauren Anthony, 

News and Events

http://www.keele.ac.uk/lifesci/newsandevents/2015/intwomensday.php

http://www.keele.ac.uk/lifesci/newsandevents/2014/mirnagrant.php

http://www.keele.ac.uk/lifesci/newsandevents/2014/hibatravelgrant.php

http://www.keele.ac.uk/lifesci/newsandevents/2013/chrishalford.php