Professor Dave Hoole

Title: Professor of Fish Diseases
Phone: +44 (0)1782 733673
Email: d.hoole@keele.ac.uk
Location: Huxley Building : 022
Role: Head of School, Undergraduate Placements in Europe (non-UK based), Course Director MSc Scientific Research Training
Contacting me: Try my office or arrange an appointment by e-mail.
dave hoole

I have always had an interest in the applied aspects of zoology and graduated from the University of Leeds, U.K. in 1975 having obtained a degree in Agricultural Zoology. At that time the aquaculture industry was in its infancy within the UK but was showing the signs of rapid expansion. I therefore took the opportunity to specialise in the interactions between parasites and lower vertebrates and undertook doctoral training at the University of Sunderland, UK. In 1979 I arrived at Keele University and joined the parasitology research group as a post-doctoral researcher and was appointed to a lectureship in 1986. Since then I have developed an extensive research profile in the area of fish\disease interactions and have published widely in this area.  

In 1991 I established “Keele Water” an environmental consultancy specialising in freshwater and fisheries. The laboratory carries out fish disease diagnosis under Section 30 of the Freshwater Fish Diseases Act of 1975 and 1983 and the “Buyer Beware Policy”. This has been extended to include the production of environmental impact assessments, a requirement in most large scale developments. I am a member of the British Society for Parasitology, European Association of Fish Pathologists, Fisheries Society of the British Isles and Insitute of Fisheries Managers. In addition, I have also co-ordinated a Marie Curie Training Network which incorporates nine research European institutes including three industrial partners. I am also a Fellow of the Society of Biology in the UK.

book1 Research Group

Post-graduate Researchers

  • Ms. Sarah Harris
  • Ms. Nawroz Omar Kareem

Current research projects

1) Marie Curie Seventh Framework Programme, Initial Training Network

Training network on protective immune modulation in warm water fish by feeding glucans (NEMO)

NEMO is a multi-disciplinary project comprising six European research Institutes/Universities and three industrial partners and is co-ordinated by Prof. D. Hoole, Keele University, UK. The scientific aim of the Network is to establish optimum protocols for the use of ß glucans in the strategic improvement of fish health. This will entail the formulation of ß glucans to assess how they affect the innate immune response of the fish and how glucans can be used as an immuno-stimulant in the warm water aquaculture and aquaria sectors. NEMO will improve fish welfare generally and also assist in disease control and vaccine development. The training aim of the Network is to form a nucleus of 16 young scientists by training-through-research and by provision of complementary skills.

The Fish Diseases/Immunology Section at Keele University has five EU research projects :

a) Analysis of the modulation of carp cell survival by glucans

The utilisation of molecular, cell biology and pathological techniques to study the modulation of apoptosis by ß-glucans. Immuno-competent cells and carp leucocyte cell lines are being used to determine the effect of glucans and pathogenic organisms e.g. KHV, Aeromonas hydrophila, SVCV on cell death.

b) The effect of glucan/infection on innate acute phase proteins

Acute phase proteins are an important component of the immune response of vertebrates. The effect of glucan and pathogenic organisms e.g. KHV, Aeromonas hydrophila, Ich (white spot) on the profile of a range of innate proteins e.g. C-Reactive Protein, complement is being studies. Local intestinal responses are also being studies to establish how glucan affects the expression and activity of innate immune proteins.

c) The expression of genes encoding for innate immune proteins that are stimulated by glucan.

The expression of genes encoding innate immune proteins that are stimulated by glucan and viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogen, is being elucidated utilising a range of molecular biological techniques. In addition, studies on the molecular structure of these proteins are planned using techniques such as crystallization and X ray diffraction.

d) Formulation of new immunostimulants in aquaculture (Narwoz Kareem in collaboration with Dr. Mark Skidmore; sponsored by the Kurdistan Ministry of Higher Education)

This research project is a development of the previous mentioned NEMO EU ITN and seeks to develop a new form of carbohydrate by determining the activity of the new formulated compound on a range of immune parameters in carp. Initial investigations involve screening new formulations in a range of fish cell lines and pronephric cells. These will be extended to in vivo investigations to ascertain the suitability of the compounds as an addaitive to fish feed and/or adjuvant in vaccine production.

e) Effects of different beta-glucans on fish microflora : immunomodulation and disease protection. (Sarah Harris, sponsored by the The Fisheries Society of the British Isles)

This project will determine the most beneficial formulation of beta glucan as an immunomodulator and to establish the role bacterial microflora in its interaction with the immune responses in fish and subsequent fish health. The project utilises common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a model species which an important fish in wild, aquaculture and ornamental situations (i.e. koi carp). Whilst carp is the model of choice, results obtained will be transferable to all fish species and cyprinids in particular. A range of biochemical and molecular biological techniques are being utilised to characterise bacteria involved and ascertain associated immune responses.

apoptosis 2) Apoptosis in the immune system of carp (Cyprinus carpio) (In collaboration with Professor G. Williams, Keele University.)

Apoptosis is now recognised as essential mechanism in the regulation of the mammalian immune system and may have a role both in physiological and pathological processes. Very few studies have been carried out on the process in fish. Apoptosis is being investigated in immuno-competent cells in carp using a variety of techniques including molecular. The latter involves studies on those genes e.g. bcl2 known to be associated with apoptosis in mammals.

3) Acute phase proteins e.g. CRP in the carp (Cyprinus carpio) (In collaboration with Prof. T. Greenhough and Dr A.K. Shrive, Keele University.)

The serum pentraxins e.g. CRP are members of a conserved family of cyclic oligomeric proteins, homologues of which have been found in mammals, fish, amphibians and the phylogenetically ancient horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. In humans, CRP plays a pivotal and complex role in the immune response and is the classical acute-phase reactant product in response to tissue damage and inflammation, circulating levels rising by up to 1000 fold within a few hours of infection or injury. The presence, characterisation, structure and role of pentraxins carp are being determined using a variety of biological techniques and protein crystallography.

4) Affects of pollutants on the immune response of carp (Cyprinus carpio)

This study is an extension of the above in that the immune response of fish to disease will be affected by water conditions. Surface freshwater systems, which are being increasingly exploited by the aquaculture industry, are at risk of contamination by a wide range of toxic chemicals. These toxicants, which include heavy metals and ammonia, originate either accidentally or deliberately, from industrial chemical processes, agriculture and mining and domestic wastes. Many, such as ammonia, are present in sub-lethal concentrations in freshwater systems whilst others, for example cadmium, are categorised as highly dangerous by the EEC. There have been several investigations on the effects of pollution on the immune response and susceptibility of fish to bacterial pathogens. However, few studies have been carried out relating the abnormal affects of pollution on the immune system of wild and farmed freshwater fish and how exposure affects the susceptibility to parasitic infection.

All the studies above are in collaboration with the Environment Agency. UK.

Further details (CAEP Homepage)

 

   

 

Selected Publications

  • Kareem N, Yates E, Skidmore M, Hoole D. 2018. In vitro investigations on the effects of semi-synthetic, sulphated carbohydrates on the immune status of cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio) leucocytes. Fish Shellfish Immunol, vol. 74, 213-222. link> doi> full text>
  • Adams S, Hoole D, McArdle J, Metselaar M, Munro E, Smith P, Thompson K, Verner-Jeffreys D. 2016. EAFP UK and Ireland Branches Second Meeting: "Aquatic animal health in a changing world". BULLETIN OF THE EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF FISH PATHOLOGISTS, vol. 36(5), 183-185. link>
  • Miest JJ and Hoole D. 2015. Time and concentration dependency of MacroGard® induced apoptosis. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, vol. 42(2), 363-366. link> doi>
  • Miest JJ, Adamek M, Pionnier N, Harris S, Matras M, Rakus KL, Irnazarow I, Steinhagen D, Hoole D. 2015. Differential effects of alloherpesvirus CyHV-3 and rhabdovirus SVCV on apoptosis in fish cells. VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 176(1-2), 19-31. link> doi>
  • Pionnier N, Falco A, Miest JJ, Shrive AK, Hoole D. 2014. Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with β-glucan supplemented diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute phase responses following PAMPs injection. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, vol. 39(2), 285-295. link> doi>

Full Publications List show

Books

  • Hoole D, Backe D, Burgess P, Wellby I. 2001. Diseases of carp and other cyprinid fishes. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Journal Articles

  • Kareem N, Yates E, Skidmore M, Hoole D. 2018. In vitro investigations on the effects of semi-synthetic, sulphated carbohydrates on the immune status of cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio) leucocytes. Fish Shellfish Immunol, vol. 74, 213-222. link> doi> full text>
  • Adams S, Hoole D, McArdle J, Metselaar M, Munro E, Smith P, Thompson K, Verner-Jeffreys D. 2016. EAFP UK and Ireland Branches Second Meeting: "Aquatic animal health in a changing world". BULLETIN OF THE EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF FISH PATHOLOGISTS, vol. 36(5), 183-185. link>
  • Miest JJ and Hoole D. 2015. Time and concentration dependency of MacroGard® induced apoptosis. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, vol. 42(2), 363-366. link> doi>
  • Miest JJ, Adamek M, Pionnier N, Harris S, Matras M, Rakus KL, Irnazarow I, Steinhagen D, Hoole D. 2015. Differential effects of alloherpesvirus CyHV-3 and rhabdovirus SVCV on apoptosis in fish cells. VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 176(1-2), 19-31. link> doi>
  • Pionnier N, Falco A, Miest JJ, Shrive AK, Hoole D. 2014. Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with β-glucan supplemented diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute phase responses following PAMPs injection. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, vol. 39(2), 285-295. link> doi>
  • Pionnier N, Adamek M, Miest JJ, Harris SJ, Matras M, Rakus K, Irnazarow I, Hoole D. 2014. C-reactive protein and complement as acute phase reactants in common carp Cyprinus carpio during CyHV-3 infection. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, vol. 109(3), 187-199. link> doi>
  • Khalil M, Furness DN, Zholobenko V, Hoole D. 2014. Effect of tapeworm parasitisation on cadmium toxicity in the bioindicator copepod, Cyclops strenuus. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS, vol. 37, 21-26. link> doi>
  • Falco A, Miest JJ, Pionnier N, Pietretti D, Forlenza M, Wiegertjes GF, Hoole D. 2014. β-Glucan-supplemented diets increase poly(I:C)-induced gene expression of Mx, possibly via Tlr3-mediated recognition mechanism in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish Shellfish Immunol, vol. 36(2), 494-502. link> doi>
  • Pietretti D, Vera-Jimenez NI, Hoole D, Wiegertjes GF. 2013. Oxidative burst and nitric oxide responses in carp macrophages induced by zymosan, MacroGard(®) and selective dectin-1 agonists suggest recognition by multiple pattern recognition receptors. Fish Shellfish Immunol, vol. 35(3), 847-857. link> doi>
  • Falco A, Miest J, Pionnier N, Pietretti D, Forlenza M, Wiegertjes GF, Hoole D. 2013. beta-glucan supplemented diets induce high and broad expression levels of TLR3 what explains protection conferred by these additives against viral infections in fish. FISH & SHELLFISH IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 34(6), 1706. link> doi>
  • Miest JJ, Adamek M, Steinhagen D, Hoole D. 2013. The role of apoptosis in immunomodulation by beta-glucan during in vitro viral infection. FISH & SHELLFISH IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 34(6), 1666. link> doi>
  • Pionnier N, Falco A, Miest J, Frost P, Irnazarow I, Shrive A, Hoole D. 2013. Dietary β-glucan stimulate complement and C-reactive protein acute phase responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during an Aeromonas salmonicida infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol, vol. 34(3), 819-831. link> doi>
  • Wei L, Hoole D, Sun B. 2014. Identification of apoptosis-related genes and transcription variations in response to microcystin-LR in zebrafish liver. Toxicol Ind Health, vol. 30(9), 777-784. link> doi>
  • Miest JJ, Falco A, Pionnier NPM, Frost P, Irnazarow I, Williams GT, Hoole D. 2012. The influence of dietary beta-glucan, PAMP exposure and Aeromonas salmonicida on apoptosis modulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). FISH & SHELLFISH IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 33(4), 846-856. link> doi>
  • Falco A, Frost P, Miest J, Pionnier N, Irnazarow I, Hoole D. 2012. Reduced inflammatory response to Aeromonas salmonicida infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fed with β-glucan supplements. Fish Shellfish Immunol, vol. 32(6), 1051-1057. link> doi>
  • Falco A, Cartwright JR, Wiegertjes GF, Hoole D. 2012. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of two new C-reactive protein genes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Dev Comp Immunol, vol. 37(1), 127-138. link> doi>
  • Hoole D, Carter V, Dufour S. 2010. Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea): an ideal fish-metazoan parasite model?. Parasitology, vol. 137(3), 425-438. link> doi> full text>
  • Khalil M, Furness D, Polwart A, Hoole D. 2009. X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) of cadmium-exposed eggs of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) and the influence of this heavy metal on coracidial hatching and activity. Int J Parasitol, vol. 39(10), 1093-1098. link> doi>
  • Vidal MC, Williams G, Hoole D. 2009. Characterisation of a carp cell line for analysis of apoptosis. Dev Comp Immunol, vol. 33(7), 801-805. link> doi>
  • Cols Vidal M, Hoole D, Williams GT. 2008. Characterisation of cDNAs of key genes involved in apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Fish Shellfish Immunol, vol. 25(5), 494-507. link> doi>
  • MacCarthy EM, Burns I, Irnazarow I, Polwart A, Greenhough TJ, Shrive AK, Hoole D. 2008. Serum CRP-like protein profile in common carp Cyprinus carpio challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Dev Comp Immunol, vol. 32(11), 1281-1289. link> doi>
  • Carter V, Pierce R, Dufour S, Arme C, Hoole D. 2005. The tapeworm Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) inhibits LH expression and puberty in its teleost host, Rutilus rutilus. Reproduction, vol. 130(6), 939-945. link> doi>
  • Roberts ML, Lewis JW, Wiegertjes GF, Hoole D. 2005. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio. Parasitology, vol. 131(Pt 2), 261-271. link> doi>
  • Cartwright JR, Tharia HA, Burns I, Shrive AK, Hoole D, Greenhough TJ. 2004. Isolation and characterisation of pentraxin-like serum proteins from the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Dev Comp Immunol, vol. 28(2), 113-125. link> doi>
  • Cartwright JR, Tharia HA, Burns I, Shrive AK, Hoole D, Greenhough TJ. 2004. Isolation and characterization of pentraxin-like serum proteins from the common carp \fICyprinus carpio\fP. Developmental and Comparative Immunology.
  • Hoole D and Williams GT. 2004. The role of apoptosis in non-mammalian host-parasite relationships. Symp Soc Exp Biol, 13-44. link>
  • Schuwerack PMM, Lewis JW, Hoole D. 2003. Cadmium-induced cellular and immunological responses in \fICyprinus carpio\fP infected with the blood parasite \fISanguinicola inermis\fP. Journal of Helminthology. doi>
  • Hoole D, Lewis JW, Schuwerack PMM, Chakravarthy C, Shrive AK, Greenhough TJ, Cartwright JR. 2003. Inflammatory interactions in fish exposed to pollutants and parasites: a role for apoptosis and C reactive protein. Parasitology, vol. 126 Suppl, S71-S85. link> doi>
  • Hoole D, Lewis JW, Schuwerack PMM, Chakravarthy C, Shrive AK, Greenhough TJ, Cartwright JR. 2003. Inflammatory interactions in fish exposed to pollutants and parasites:a role for apoptosis and C-reactive protein. Parasitology.
  • Lewis JW, Hoole D, Chappell LH. 2003. Parasitism and environmental pollution:parasites and hosts as indicators of water quality. Parasitology, vol. 126(Suppl), S1-S3. doi>
  • Lewis JW, Hoole D, Chappell LH. 2003. Parasitism and environmental pollution:parasites and hosts as indicators of water quality. Parasitology.
  • Schuwerack PM, Lewis JW, Hoole D, Morley NJ. 2001. Ammonia-induced cellular and immunological changes in juvenile Cyprinus carpio infected with the blood fluke Sanguinicola inermis. Parasitology, vol. 122(Pt 3), 339-345. link> doi>
  • Nie P and Hoole D. 2000. Effects of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi on the polarization response of pronephric leucocytes of carp, Cyprinus carpio. J Helminthol, vol. 74(3), 253-257. link>
  • Nie P and Hoole D. 1999. Antibody response of carp, Cyprinus carpio to the cestode, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Parasitology, vol. 118 ( Pt 6), 635-639. link> doi>
  • Williams MA, Penlington MC, King JA, Hoole D, Arme C. 1998. Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda) infections of roach (Rutilas rutilus) (Cyprinidae): immunocytochemical investigations into the salmon- and chicken-II type gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) systems in host brains. ACTA PARASITOLOGICA, vol. 43(4), 232-235. link>
  • Penlington MC, Harden N, Garside J, Hoole D, Arme C. 1998. Isolation and characterization of mRNA encoding the chicken-II type gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) precursor in the rainbow trout. JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, vol. 53(3), 614-623. link> doi>
  • Penlington MC, Williams MA, Sumpter JP, Rand-Weaver M, Hoole D, Arme C. 1997. Isolation and characterisation of mRNA encoding the salmon- and chicken-II type gonadotrophin-releasing hormones in the teleost fish Rutilus rutilus (Cyprinidae). J Mol Endocrinol, vol. 19(3), 337-346. link> doi>
  • Taylor K, Kusel JR, Hoole D. 1997. Membrane fluidity on the surface of Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda): immunological implications. Parasitology, vol. 115 ( Pt 6), 667-671. link> doi>
  • Taylor K and Hoole D. 1997. Interactions between rat C-reactive protein and adult Hymenolepis diminuta. Parasitology, vol. 115 ( Pt 3), 297-302. link> doi>
  • Hoole D. 1997. The effects of pollutants on the immune response of fish: implications for helminth parasites. Parassitologia, vol. 39(3), 219-225. link>
  • Morley NJ and Hoole D. 1997. The in vitro effect of Khawia sinensis on leucocyte activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio). J Helminthol, vol. 71(1), 47-52. link> doi>
  • Nie P, Hoole D, Arme C. 1996. Proliferation of pronephric lymphocytes of carp, Cyprinus carpio induced by extracts of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. J Helminthol, vol. 70(2), 127-131. link> doi>
  • Richards DT, Hoole D, Lewis JW, Ewens E, Arme C. 1996. Stimulation of carp Cyprinus carpio lymphocytes in vitro by the blood fluke Sanguinicola inermis (Trematoda: Sanguinicolidae). DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS, vol. 25(1-2), 87-93. link> doi>
  • Richards DT, Hoole D, Lewis JW, Ewens E, Arme C. 1996. In vitro polarization of carp leucocytes in response to the blood fluke Sanguinicola inermis Plehn, 1905 (Trematoda: Sanguinicolidae). Parasitology, vol. 112 ( Pt 5), 509-513. link> doi>
  • Richards DT, Hoole D, Lewis JW, Ewens E, Arme C. 1996. Adherence of carp leucocytes to adults and cercariae of the blood fluke Sanguinicola inermis. J Helminthol, vol. 70(1), 63-67. link> doi>
  • MORLEY NJ and HOOLE D. 1995. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES ON THE HOST-PARASITE INTERFACE BETWEEN KHAWIA-SINENSIS (CESTODA, CARYOPHYLLIDEA) AND CARP CYPRINUS-CARPIO. DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS, vol. 23(2), 93-99. link> doi>
  • TAYLOR MJ and HOOLE D. 1995. THE CHEMILUMINESCENCE OF CYPRINID LEUKOCYTES IN RESPONSE TO ZYMOSAN AND EXTRACTS OF LIGULA-INTESTINALIS (CESTODA). FISH & SHELLFISH IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 5(3), 191-198. link> doi>
  • Williams MA and Hoole D. 1995. Immunolabelling of fish host molecules on the tegumental surface of Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea). Int J Parasitol, vol. 25(2), 249-256. link> doi>
  • HOOLE D and NISAN H. 1994. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES ON INTESTINAL RESPONSE OF CARP, CYPRINUS-CARPIO L, TO THE PSEUDOPHYLLIDEAN TAPEWORM, BOTHRIOCEPHALUS-ACHEILOGNATHI YAMAGUTI, 1934. JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, vol. 17(6), 623-629. link> doi>
  • RICHARDS DT, HOOLE D, LEWIS JW, EWENS E, ARME C. 1994. ULTRASTRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE CELLULAR-RESPONSE OF CARP, CYPRINUS-CARPIO L, TO EGGS OF THE BLOOD FLUKE SANGUINICOLA-INERMIS PLEHN, 1905 (TREMATODA, SANGUINICOLIDAE). JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, vol. 17(5), 439-446. link> doi>
  • RICHARDS DT, HOOLE D, LEWIS JW, EWENS E, ARME C. 1994. CHANGES IN THE CELLULAR COMPOSITION OF THE SPLEEN AND PRONEPHROS OF CARP CYPRINUS-CARPIO INFECTED WITH THE BLOOD FLUKE SANGUINICOLA-INERMIS (TREMATODA, SANGUINICOLIDAE). DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS, vol. 19(3), 173-179. link> doi>
  • Hoole D, Andreassen J, Birklund D. 1994. Microscopical observations on immune precipitates formed in vitro on the surface of hymenolepid tapeworms. Parasitology, vol. 109 ( Pt 2), 243-248. link> doi>
  • TAYLOR MJ and HOOLE D. 1994. MODULATION OF FISH LYMPHOCYTE-PROLIFERATION BY EXTRACTS AND ISOLATED PROTEINASE-INHIBITORS OF LIGULA-INTESTINALIS (CESTODA). FISH & SHELLFISH IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 4(3), 221-230. link> doi>
  • Taylor MJ and Hoole D. 1993. Ligula intestinalis (L.) (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea): polarization of cyprinid leucocytes as an indicator of host- and parasite-derived chemoattractants. Parasitology, vol. 107 ( Pt 4), 433-440. link> doi>
  • WILLIAMS MA and HOOLE D. 1992. ANTIBODY-RESPONSE OF THE FISH RUTILUS-RUTILUS TO THE METACESTODE OF LIGULA-INTESTINALIS. DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS, vol. 12(2), 83-89.
  • Andreassen J, Hoole D, Befus D. 1990. Complement-mediated leucocyte adherence to newly excysted and 4-day-old Hymenolepis diminuta. Int J Parasitol, vol. 20(7), 905-911. link> doi>
  • Andreassen J and Hoole D. 1989. Repair of Hymenolepis diminuta after complement-mediated damage. Parasitology, vol. 99 Pt 3, 437-443. link> doi>
  • TAYLOR M and HOOLE D. 1989. LIGULA-INTESTINALIS (L) (CESTODA, PSEUDOPHYLLIDEA) - AN ULTRASTRUCTURAL-STUDY OF THE CELLULAR-RESPONSE OF ROACH FRY, RUTILIS-RUTILIS L, TO AN UNUSUAL INTRAMUSCULAR INFECTION. JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, vol. 12(5), 523-528. link> doi>
  • TAYLOR M and HOOLE D. 1989. LIGULA-INTESTINALIS (L) (CESTODA, PSEUDOPHYLLIDEA) - PLEROCERCOID-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE SPLEEN AND PRONEPHROS OF ROACH, RUTILUS-RUTILUS (L), AND GUDGEON, GOBIO-GOBIO (L). JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, vol. 34(4), 583-596. link> doi>
  • HOOLE D and ARME C. 1988. LIGULA-INTESTINALIS (CESTODA, PSEUDOPHYLLIDEA) - PHOSPHORYLCHOLINE INHIBITION OF FISH LEUKOCYTE ADHERENCE. DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS, vol. 5(1), 29-33. link> doi>
  • BAKKE TA and HOOLE D. 1988. THE MICROTOPOGRAPHY AND PAPILLARY ARRANGEMENT ON ADULT GORGODERINA-VITELLILOBA (OLSSON) (DIGENEA, GORGODERIDAE) FROM AMPHIBIANS IN RELATION TO FISH GORGODERIDS. ZOOLOGICA SCRIPTA, vol. 17(3), 223-230. link> doi>
  • HOOLE D and ARME C. 1986. THE ROLE OF SERUM IN LEUKOCYTE ADHERENCE TO THE PLEROCERCOID OF LIGULA-INTESTINALIS (CESTODA, PSEUDOPHYLLIDEA). PARASITOLOGY, vol. 92, 413-424.
  • HOOLE D and ARME C. 1985. THE INVITRO CULTURE AND TEGUMENTAL DYNAMICS OF THE PLEROCERCOID OF LIGULA-INTESTINALIS (CESTODA, PSEUDOPHYLLIDEA). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR PARASITOLOGY, vol. 15(6), 609-615. link> doi>
  • ARME C and HOOLE D. 1984. AN INVITRO METHOD FOR STUDYING THE TEGUMENTAL DYNAMICS OF THE PLEROCERCOID OF LIGULA-INTESTINALIS. PARASITOLOGY, vol. 89(OCT), R19. link>
  • Hoole D and Mitchell JB. 1984. Gorgoderina vitelliloba: interaction with frog leucocytes in vivo and in vitro. Exp Parasitol, vol. 57(3), 225-233. link> doi>
  • HOOLE D and MITCHELL JB. 1984. GORGODERINA-VITELLIBOLA (DIGENEA, GORGODERIDAE) IN HYLA-ARBOREA. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PARASITENKUNDE-PARASITOLOGY RESEARCH, vol. 70(6), 829-831. link> doi>
  • ROBINSON RD, BRIDGES JF, HOOLE D, ARME C. 1984. STUDIES ON THE INHIBITION OF ACTIVATION STIMULATION OF MURINE PERITONEAL-MACROPHAGES BY METACESTODES OF ECHINOCOCCUS-GRANULOSUS-EQUINUS. PARASITOLOGY, vol. 89(OCT), R60-R61. link>
  • HOOLE D and ARME C. 1984. THE INTERACTION INVITRO BETWEEN THE LEUKOCYTES OF RUTILUS-RUTILUS AND THE PLEROCERCOID OF LIGULA-INTESTINALIS. PARASITOLOGY, vol. 89(OCT), R18. link>
  • BRIDGES JF, PRATTEN MK, HOOLE D, WEBSTER P, ARME C. 1983. CELLULAR-RESPONSE TO ECHINOCOCCUS-GRANULOSUS. PARASITOLOGY, vol. 87(OCT), R19. link>
  • HOOLE D and MITCHELL JB. 1983. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ALIMENTARY-TRACT OF GORGODERINA-VITELLILOBA DURING MIGRATION IN RANA-TEMPORARIA. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR PARASITOLOGY, vol. 13(5), 455-462. link> doi>
  • HOOLE D and ARME C. 1983. FISH LEUKOCYTE-CULTURE AND PARASITE INTERACTION. PARASITOLOGY, vol. 87(OCT), R21. link>
  • HOOLE D and MITCHELL JB. 1983. GORGODERINA-VITELLILOBA - AN ULTRASTRUCTURAL-STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEGUMENT FROM THE METACERCARIA TO THE ADULT FLUKE. PARASITOLOGY, vol. 86(APR), 323-&. link> doi>
  • HOOLE D and ARME C. 1983. LIGULA-INTESTINALIS (CESTODA, PSEUDOPHYLLIDEA) - AN ULTRASTRUCTURAL-STUDY ON THE CELLULAR-RESPONSE OF ROACH FRY, RUTILUS-RUTILUS. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR PARASITOLOGY, vol. 13(4), 359-363. link> doi>
  • HOOLE D and ARME C. 1983. THE TISSUE-RESPONSE OF CYPRINID FISH TO CULTURED PLEROCERCOIDS OF LIGULA-INTESTINALIS. PARASITOLOGY, vol. 87(OCT), R52. link>
  • HOOLE D, MITCHELL JB, MASON AR. 1983. ULTRASTRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE PENETRATION GLANDS OF GORGODERINA-VITELLILOBA (DIGENEA, GORGODERIDAE). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR PARASITOLOGY, vol. 13(1), 83-90. link> doi>
  • HOOLE D and ARME C. 1983. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES ON THE CELLULAR-RESPONSE OF FISH HOSTS FOLLOWING EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION WITH THE PLEROCERCOID OF LIGULA-INTESTINALIS (CESTODA, PSEUDOPHYLLIDEA). PARASITOLOGY, vol. 87(AUG), 139-&. link> doi>
  • HOOLE D and ARME C. 1982. AN ULTRASTRUCTURAL-STUDY ON THE TISSUE-RESPONSE OF FISH TO SURGICALLY IMPLANTED LARVAE OF LIGULA-INTESTINALIS. PARASITOLOGY, vol. 85(OCT), R25-R26. link>
  • ARME C, JEFFS SA, HOOLE D. 1982. HYMENOLEPIS-DIMINUTA - WHICH SALINE IS MOST SUITABLE FOR INVITRO STUDIES ON CYSTICERCOID LARVAE. PARASITOLOGY, vol. 84(FEB), R64-R65. link>
  • HOOLE D and ARME C. 1982. LIGULA-INTESTINALIS - CELLULAR-RESPONSE OF ROACH FRY (RUTILUS, RUTILUS) TO THE PLEROCERCOID LARVA. PARASITOLOGY, vol. 85(OCT), R62. link>
  • HOOLE D and ARME C. 1982. LIGULA-INTESTINALIS (CESTODA, PSEUDOPHYLLIDEA) - CELLULAR REACTION TO THE PLEROCERCOID LARVA SURGICALLY IMPLANTED INTO ITS FISH HOST. PARASITOLOGY, vol. 84(FEB), R66-R67. link>
  • HOOLE D and ARME C. 1982. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES ON THE CELLULAR-RESPONSE OF ROACH, RUTILUS-RUTILUS L, TO THE PLEROCERCOID LARVA OF THE PSEUDOPHYLLIDEAN CESTODE, LIGULA-INTESTINALIS. JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, vol. 5(2), 131-144. link> doi>
  • HOOLE D and MITCHELL JB. 1981. ULTRASTRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE SENSORY PAPILLAE OF JUVENILE AND ADULT GORGODERINA-VITELLILOBA (TREMATODA, GORGODERIDAE). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR PARASITOLOGY, vol. 11(5), 411-417. link> doi>
  • HOOLE D and ARME C. 1980. LIGULA-INTESTINALIS - PRELIMINARY-OBSERVATIONS ON THE INTERFACE BETWEEN THE PLEROCERCOID LARVA AND ITS FISH HOST. PARASITOLOGY, vol. 81(OCT), R52. link>

Chapters

  • Hoole D and Williams GT. 2004. The role of apoptosis in non-mammalian host-parasite relationships. In Host Parasite Interactions. Wiegertjes GF and Flik G (Eds.). Bios Scientific Publishers.
  • HOOLE D. 1994. Interactions between tapeworms and fish. In Parasitic diseases of fish. Lewis JW and Pike AW (Eds.). Samara Publishing.
  • HOOLE D, Arme C, Bridges J. 1983. Pathology of cestode infections in vertebrate hosts. In Biology of the Eucestoda. Arme C (Ed.). Academic Pr.

Other

  • Morley NJ, Lewis JW, Hoole D. 2006. Pollutant-induced effects on immunological and physiological interactions in aquatic host-trematode systems: implications for parasite transmission. J Helminthol (vol. 80, pp. 137-149). link> doi>
  • Wiegertjes GF, Steinhagen D, Nielsen ME, Hoole D, Bonga SEW, Irnazarow I. 2006. Interactions between parasites and their fish host. BULLETIN OF THE EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF FISH PATHOLOGISTS (vol. 26, pp. 53-54). link>
  • Chakravarthy C, Cols Vidal M, Williams GT, Hoole D. 2003. Molecular studies on apoptosis in the immune system of common carp \fICyprinus carpio\fP. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the European Association of Fish Pathologists.
  • Cartwright JR, MacCarthy E, Greenhough TJ, Shrive A, Wiegertjes GF, Hoole D. 2003. Pentraxin-like serum proteins from common carp \fI(Cyprinus carpio)\fP. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the European Association of Fish Pathologists.
  • Cartwright JR, MacCarthy E, Greenhough TJ, Shrive A, Wiegertjes GF, Hoole D. 2003. Pentraxin-like serum proteins from common carp \fI(Cyprinus carpio)\fP. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the European Association of Fish Pathologists.
  • Carter V, Hoole D, Pierce R, Dufour S, Arme C. 2002. Inhibition of reproductive function in the cyprinid \fIRutilus rutilus\fP by the cestode \fILigula intestinalis\fP. 4th International Symposium of Aquatic Animal Health.
  • Carter V, Hoole D, Pierce R, Dufour S, Arme C. 2002. Inhibition of reproductive function in the cyprinid \fIRutilus rutilus\fP by the Cestode \fILigula intestinalis\fP. Proceedings of the European Comparative Endocrinologists.
  • Chakravarthy C, Williams GT, Hoole D. 2001. Apoptosis in the immune system of the common carp,\fICyprinius carpio\fP and its relationship with parasitization. Proceedings of the British Society for Parasitology.
  • Chakravarthy C, Williams GT, Hoole D. 2001. Effect of cortisol on the rate of apoptosis and gene expression in the immune system of the common carp, \fI(Cyprinius carpio)\fP. Proceedings of the International Conference of the European Association of Fish Parasitologists.
  • Carter V, Hoole D, Pierce RJ, Dufour S, Arme C. 2001. How does Ligula intestinalis inhibit fish reproduction? A molecular approach. Proceedings of the British Society for Parasitology.
  • Carter V, Hoole D, Pierce RJ, Dufour S, Arme C. 2001. Inhibition of fish reproduction by the cestode \fILigula intestinalis\fP. Proceedings of the International Conference of the European Association of Fish Pathologists.
  • Cartwright JR, Greenhough TJ, Shrive AK, Hoole D. 2001. Isolation of C-reactive protein from the common carp \fI(Cyprinius carpio)\fP. Proceedings of the International Conference of the European Association of Fish Pathologists.
  • Cartwright JR, Greenhough TJ, Shrive AK, Hoole D. 2001. Isolation of C-reactive protein from the common carp \fI(Cyprinius carpio)\fP. Proceedings of the International Conference of the European Association of Fish Pathologists.
  • Schuwerark PM, Lewis JW, Hoole D. 2001. Progressive cellular changes in the common carp \fICyprinius carpio\fP infected with the blood fluke, \fISanguinicola inermis\fP prior to and after exposure to cadmium. Proceedings of the British Society for Parasitology.
  • BLACKBURN K and HOOLE D. 1990. THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN THE IMMUNE EXPULSION OF THE TAPEWORM HYMENOLEPIS-DIMINUTA FROM THE RAT. ADVANCES IN MUCOSAL IMMUNOLOGY (pp. 835-836). link>

My teaching duties include teaching in all years of the Biology degree at Keele University. In particular I contribute immunological themes to a number of modules and, in addition, present a final year module on Applied Fish Biology. I also contribute to the MSc course Vector Biology and Molecular Parasitology, and the MSc in Scientific Research Training, the latter of which I am Director. I also serve as Director of Post-graduate Taught Courses in the Faculty of Natural Sciences at Keele University. I have over many years been the organiser of the Biology Field Course held in North Wales.