Prof C Exley

Title: Professor of Bioinorganic Chemistry
Phone: +44 (0)1782 734080
Email: c.exley@keele.ac.uk
Location: Lennard Jones: LJ0.06
Role:
Contacting me: Try my office or arrange an appointment by e-mail.
Chris Exley

Chris Exley graduated from Stirling in 1985 with a 2i Honours degree in Biology. It was during the 4th and final year of my degree that I undertook my first research on aluminium. The title of my undergraduate thesis was : "Aluminium toxicity to Atlantic salmon smolts, Salmo salar, and juvenile rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, in acid waters". I remained at Stirling to undertake a PhD in the Institute of Aquaculture, funded by ICI and supervised by Professor JD Birchall OBE FRS (ICI). The title of my PhD is: "Amelioration of aluminium toxicity in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., with particular reference to aluminium/silicon interactions". I followed my PhD with a 3 year ICI postdoctoral fellowship in the Institute of Aquaculture (1989-1992) before moving to Keele University in the summer of 1992 as an ICI Research Fellow (1992-1994) to help JD Birchall establish The Unit of Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Science in the Department of Chemistry. In 1994 I was awarded a Royal Society University Research Fellowship in "The Bioinorganic Chemistry of Aluminium and Silicon".

Further details can be found on my website http://www.keele.ac.uk/aluminium

I am interested in the myriad ways that aluminium impacts upon life on earth. In particular we have studied the interaction of aluminium with silicic acid to form hydroxyaluminosilicates and the importance of this interaction in keeping aluminium out of life. Other areas of interest include what we define as the biological availability of aluminium in which we are trying to understand how physical, chemical and biological processes combine to determine the accumulation, distribution, metabolism and excretion of aluminium. These interests cover all forms of life, from microbes to man, impacting upon fundamental bioinorganic chemistry as well as the latter allied to medicine and in particular neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. I also have an ongoing interest in biosilicification.

Further details

Selected Publications

  • Martinez CS, Escobar AG, Uranga-Ocio JA, Peçanha FM, Vassallo DV, Exley C, Miguel M, Wiggers GA. 2017. Aluminum exposure for 60days at human dietary levels impairs spermatogenesis and sperm quality in rats. Reprod Toxicol, vol. 73, 128-141. link> doi>
  • King A, Troakes C, Aizpurua M, Mirza A, Hodges A, Al-Sarraj S, Exley C. 2017. Unusual neuropathological features and increased brain aluminium in a resident of Camelford, UK. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol, vol. 43(6), 537-541. link> doi>
  • Linhart C, Talasz H, Morandi EM, Exley C, Lindner HH, Taucher S, Egle D, Hubalek M, Concin N, Ulmer H. 2017. Use of Underarm Cosmetic Products in Relation to Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study. EBioMedicine, vol. 21, 79-85. link> doi>
  • Masson J-D, Crépeaux G, Authier F-J, Exley C, Gherardi RK. 2017. [Critical analysis of reference studies on aluminium-based adjuvants toxicokinetics]. Ann Pharm Fr, vol. 75(4), 245-256. link> doi>
  • Mold M, Shardlow E, Exley C. 2017. Toward understanding the mechanisms underlying the strong adjuvant activity of aluminium salt nanoparticles. Ruwona TB, Xu H, Li X, Taylor AN, Shi Y, Cui Z. Vaccine 2016;34:3059-67. Vaccine, vol. 35(8), 1101. link> doi>

Full Publications List show

Books

  • Exley C. Exley C (Ed.). 2001. Aluminium and Alzheimer's Disease: The Science that Desribes the Link. Elsevier Science Ltd, Amsterdam.

Journal Articles

  • Martinez CS, Escobar AG, Uranga-Ocio JA, Peçanha FM, Vassallo DV, Exley C, Miguel M, Wiggers GA. 2017. Aluminum exposure for 60days at human dietary levels impairs spermatogenesis and sperm quality in rats. Reprod Toxicol, vol. 73, 128-141. link> doi>
  • King A, Troakes C, Aizpurua M, Mirza A, Hodges A, Al-Sarraj S, Exley C. 2017. Unusual neuropathological features and increased brain aluminium in a resident of Camelford, UK. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol, vol. 43(6), 537-541. link> doi>
  • Linhart C, Talasz H, Morandi EM, Exley C, Lindner HH, Taucher S, Egle D, Hubalek M, Concin N, Ulmer H. 2017. Use of Underarm Cosmetic Products in Relation to Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study. EBioMedicine, vol. 21, 79-85. link> doi>
  • Masson J-D, Crépeaux G, Authier F-J, Exley C, Gherardi RK. 2017. [Critical analysis of reference studies on aluminium-based adjuvants toxicokinetics]. Ann Pharm Fr, vol. 75(4), 245-256. link> doi>
  • Mold M, Shardlow E, Exley C. 2017. Toward understanding the mechanisms underlying the strong adjuvant activity of aluminium salt nanoparticles. Ruwona TB, Xu H, Li X, Taylor AN, Shi Y, Cui Z. Vaccine 2016;34:3059-67. Vaccine, vol. 35(8), 1101. link> doi>
  • Crépeaux G, Eidi H, David M-O, Baba-Amer Y, Tzavara E, Giros B, Authier F-J, Exley C, Shaw CA, Cadusseau J, Gherardi RK. 2017. Non-linear dose-response of aluminium hydroxide adjuvant particles: Selective low dose neurotoxicity. Toxicology, vol. 375, 48-57. link> doi>
  • Brugiére T and Exley C. 2017. Callose-associated silica deposition in Arabidopsis. J Trace Elem Med Biol, vol. 39, 86-90. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2017. The safety of Cervarix?. Lancet Infect Dis, vol. 17(1), 19-20. link> doi>
  • Mirza A, King A, Troakes C, Exley C. 2017. Aluminium in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer's disease. J Trace Elem Med Biol, vol. 40, 30-36. link> doi>
  • Mirza A, King A, Troakes C, Exley C. 2016. The Identification of Aluminum in Human Brain Tissue Using Lumogallion and Fluorescence Microscopy. Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD, vol. 54(4), 1333-1338. doi> link>
  • Mold M, Shardlow E, Exley C. 2016. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations. Sci Rep, vol. 6, 31578. link> doi>
  • Beardmore J, Lopez X, Mujika JI, Exley C. 2016. What is the mechanism of formation of hydroxyaluminosilicates?. Scientific reports, vol. 6, Article 30913. doi> link>
  • Exley C. 2016. The toxicity of aluminium in humans. Morphologie. doi>
  • Exley C. 2015. Guest editorial for the Special Issue from the Eleventh Keele Meeting on Aluminium. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, vol. 152, 138. doi>
  • Exley C. 2015. A possible mechanism of biological silicification in plants. Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 6, 853. link> doi>
  • Crépeaux G, Eidi H, David M-O, Tzavara E, Giros B, Exley C, Curmi PA, Shaw CA, Gherardi RK, Cadusseau J. 2015. Highly delayed systemic translocation of aluminum-based adjuvant in CD1 mice following intramuscular injections. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 152, 199-205. link> doi>
  • Exley C, Rotheray E, Goulson D. 2015. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium. PLOS ONE, vol. 10(6), Article ARTN e0127665. link> doi>
  • Exley C and Mold MJ. 2015. The binding, transport and fate of aluminium in biological cells. Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), vol. 30, 90-95. doi>
  • Exley C. 2014. Why industry propaganda and political interference cannot disguise the inevitable role played by human exposure to aluminum in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Frontiers in Neurology, vol. 5, 212. link> doi>
  • Klein JP, Mold M, Mery L, Cottier M, Exley C. 2014. Aluminum content of human semen: implications for semen quality. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.), vol. 50, 43-48. doi>
  • Mold M, Eriksson H, Siesjö P, Darabi A, Shardlow E, Exley C. 2014. Unequivocal identification of intracellular aluminium adjuvant in a monocytic THP-1 cell line. Scientific Reports, vol. 4, 6287. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2014. What is the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin?. Expert Rev Neurother, vol. 14(6), 589-591. link> doi>
  • Everett J, Céspedes E, Shelford LR, Exley C, Collingwood JF, Dobson J, van der Laan G, Jenkins CA, Arenholz E, Telling ND. 2014. Evidence of redox-active iron formation following aggregation of ferrihydrite and the Alzheimer's disease peptide β-amyloid. Inorg Chem, vol. 53(6), 2803-2809. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2014. Aluminium adjuvants and adverse events in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol, vol. 10(1), 4. link> doi>
  • Exley C and Vickers T. 2014. Elevated brain aluminium and early onset Alzheimer's disease in an individual occupationally exposed to aluminium: a case report. J Med Case Rep, vol. 8, 41. link> doi>
  • Everett J, Céspedes E, Shelford LR, Exley C, Collingwood JF, Dobson J, van der Laan G, Jenkins CA, Arenholz E, Telling ND. 2014. Ferrous iron formation following the co-aggregation of ferric iron and the Alzheimer's disease peptide β-amyloid (1-42). J R Soc Interface, vol. 11(95), 20140165. link> doi>
  • Darbre PD, Mannello F, Exley C. 2013. Aluminium and breast cancer: Sources of exposure, tissue measurements and mechanisms of toxicological actions on breast biology. JOURNAL OF INORGANIC BIOCHEMISTRY, vol. 128, 257-261. link> doi>
  • Ohlsson L, Exley C, Darabi A, Sanden E, Siesjoe P, Eriksson H. 2013. Aluminium based adjuvants and their effects on mitochondria and lysosomes of phagocytosing cells. JOURNAL OF INORGANIC BIOCHEMISTRY, vol. 128, 229-236. link> doi>
  • Minshall C, Nadal J, Exley C. 2014. Aluminium in human sweat. J Trace Elem Med Biol, vol. 28(1), 87-88. link> doi>
  • Chuchu N, Patel B, Sebastian B, Exley C. 2013. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high. BMC PEDIATRICS, vol. 13, Article ARTN 162. link> doi>
  • Exley C and Sjöberg S. 2014. Silicon species in seawater. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, vol. 117, 820-821. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2013. Human exposure to aluminium. Environ Sci Process Impacts, vol. 15(10), 1807-1816. link> doi>
  • House E, Polwart A, Darbre P, Barr L, Metaxas G, Exley C. 2013. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer. J Trace Elem Med Biol, vol. 27(4), 257-266. link> doi>
  • Khan Z, Combadiere C, Authier F-J, Itier V, Lux F, Exley C, Mahrouf-Yorgov M, Decrouy X, Moretto P, Tillement O, Gherardi RK, Cadusseau J. 2013. Slow CCL2-dependent translocation of biopersistent particles from muscle to brain. BMC MEDICINE, vol. 11, Article ARTN 99. link> doi>
  • Mold M, Ouro-Gnao L, Wieckowski BM, Exley C. 2013. Copper prevents amyloid-β(1-42) from forming amyloid fibrils under near-physiological conditions in vitro. Sci Rep, vol. 3, 1256. link> doi>
  • Buffoli B, Foglio E, Borsani E, Exley C, Rezzani R, Rodella LF. 2013. Silicic acid in drinking water prevents age-related alterations in the endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation modulating eNOS and AQP1 expression in experimental mice: An immunohistochemical study. ACTA HISTOCHEMICA, vol. 115(5), 418-424. link> doi>
  • Ruiperez F, Mujika JJ, Ugalde JM, Exley C, Lopez X. 2012. Pro-oxidant activity of aluminum: Promoting the Fenton reaction by reducing Fe(III) to Fe(II). JOURNAL OF INORGANIC BIOCHEMISTRY, vol. 117, 118-123. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2012. Significant omissions of copper-amyloid research in 'Metal Ions in Neurodegenerative Diseases' special issue (CCR 256 (19,20) 2012). COORDINATION CHEMISTRY REVIEWS, vol. 256(23-24), 3114. link> doi>
  • Steinhauser G, Adlassnig W, Risch JA, Anderlini S, Arguriou P, Armendariz AZ, Bains W, Baker C, Barnes M, Barnett J, Baumgartner M, Baumgartner T, Bendall CA, Bender YS, Bichler M, Biermann T, Bini R, Blanco E, Bleau J, Brink A, Brown D, Burghuber C, Calne R, Carter B, Castano C, Celec P, Celis ME, Clarke N, Cockrell D, Collins D, Coogan B, Craig J, Crilly C, Crowe D, Csoka AB, Darwich C, del Kebos T, DeRinaldi M, Dlamini B, Drewa T, Dwyer M, Eder F, de Palma RE, Esmay D, Roett CE, Exley C, Falkov R, Farber CI, Fearn W, Felsmann S, Flensmark J, Fletcher AK, Foster M, Fountoulakis KN, Fouratt J, Blanca JG, Sotelo MG, Gittler F, Gittler G, Gomez J, Gomez JF, Polar MGG, Gonzalez J, Goesselsberger C, Habermacher L, Hajek M, Hakala F, Haliburton M-S, Hankins JR, Hart J, Hasslberger S, Hennessey D, Herrmann A, Hersee M, Howard C, Humphries S, Isharc L, Ivanovski P, Jenuth S, Jerndal J, Johnson C, Keleta Y, Kenny A, Kidd B, Kohle F, Kolahi J, Koller-Peroutka M, Kostova L, Kumar A, Kurosawa A, Lance T, Lechermann M, Lendl B, Leuchters M, Lewis E, Lieb E, Lloyd G, Losek A, Lu Y, Maestracci S, Mangan D, Mares AW, Barnett JM, McClain V, McNair JS, Michael T, Miller L, Monzani P, Moran B, Morris M, Moesser G, Mountain J, Phuthe OMM, Munoz M, Nakken S, Wambui AN, Neunteufl B, Nikolic D, Oberoi DV, Obmode G, Ogar L, Ohara J, Rybine NO, Owen B, Owen KW, Parikh R, Pearce NJG, Pemmer B, Piper C, Prince I, Reid T, Rindermann H, Risch S, Robbins J, Roberts S, Romero A, Rothe MT, Ruiz S, Sacher J, Sackl W, Salletmaier M, Sanand J, Sauerzopf C, Schwarzgruber T, Scott D, Seegers L, Seppi D, Shields K, Siller-Matula J, Singh B, Sithole S, Six F, Skoyles JR, Slofstra J, Sole DA, Sommer WF, Sonko M, Starr-Casanova CJ, Steakley ME, Steinhauser W, Steinhoff K, Sterba JH, Steppan M, Stindl R, Stokely J, Stokely K, St-Pierre G, Stratford J, Streli C, Stryg C, Sullivan M, Summhammer J, Tadesse A, Tavares D, Thompson L, Tomlinson A, Tozer J, Trevisanato SI, Trimmel M, Turner N, Vahur P, van der Byl J, van der Maas T, Varela L, Vega CA, Vermaak S, Villasenor A, Vogel M, von Wintzigerode G, Wagner C, Weinberger M, Weinberger P, Wilson N, Wolfe JF, Woodley MA, Young I, Zuraw G, Zwiren N. 2012. Peer review versus editorial review and their role in innovative science. THEORETICAL MEDICINE AND BIOETHICS, vol. 33(5), 359-376. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2012. The coordination chemistry of aluminium in neurodegenerative disease. COORDINATION CHEMISTRY REVIEWS, vol. 256(19-20), 2142-2146. link> doi>
  • Davenward S, Bentham P, Wright J, Crome P, Job D, Polwart A, Exley C. 2013. Silicon-rich mineral water as a non-invasive test of the 'aluminum hypothesis' in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 33(2), 423-430. link> doi>
  • Foglio E, Buffoli B, Exley C, Rezzani R, Rodella LF. 2012. Regular consumption of a silicic acid-rich water prevents aluminium-induced alterations of nitrergic neurons in mouse brain: histochemical and immunohistochemical studies. HISTOLOGY AND HISTOPATHOLOGY, vol. 27(8), 1055-1066. link> doi>
  • Exley C, House E, Polwart A, Esiri MM. 2012. Brain burdens of aluminum, iron, and copper and their relationships with amyloid-β pathology in 60 human brains. J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 31(4), 725-730. link> doi>
  • Mold M, Shrive AK, Exley C. 2012. Serum amyloid P component accelerates the formation and enhances the stability of amyloid fibrils in a physiologically significant under-saturated solution of amyloid-β42. J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 29(4), 875-881. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2012. Reflections upon and recent insight into the mechanism of formation of hydroxyaluminosilicates and the therapeutic potential of silicic acid. COORDINATION CHEMISTRY REVIEWS, vol. 256(1-2), 82-88. link> doi>
  • House E, Esiri M, Forster G, Ince PG, Exley C. 2012. Aluminium, iron and copper in human brain tissues donated to the Medical Research Council's Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Metallomics, vol. 4(1), 56-65. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2012. When an aluminium adjuvant is not an aluminium adjuvant used in human vaccination programmes. Vaccine, vol. 30(12), 2042. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2011. Aluminium-based adjuvants should not be used as placebos in clinical trials. Vaccine, vol. 29(50), 9289. link> doi>
  • Mujika JI, Ruiperez F, Infante I, Ugalde JM, Exley C, Lopez X. 2011. Pro-oxidant Activity of Aluminum: Stabilization of the Aluminum Superoxide Radical Ion. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A, vol. 115(24), 6717-6723. link> doi>
  • Exley C and House ER. 2011. Aluminium in the human brain. MONATSHEFTE FUR CHEMIE, vol. 142(4), 357-363. link> doi>
  • House E, Jones K, Exley C. 2011. Spherulites in human brain tissue are composed of β sheets of amyloid and resemble senile plaques. J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 25(1), 43-46. link> doi>
  • Law C and Exley C. 2011. New insight into silica deposition in horsetail (Equisetum arvense). BMC Plant Biol, vol. 11, 112. link> doi>
  • Exley C, House E, Patel T, Wu L, Fraser PE. 2010. Human pro-islet amyloid polypeptide (ProIAPP(1-48)) forms amyloid fibrils and amyloid spherulites in vitro. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 104(10), 1125-1129. link> doi>
  • Exley C, House E, Collingwood JF, Davidson MR, Cannon D, Donald AM. 2010. Spherulites of amyloid-beta42 in vitro and in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 20(4), 1159-1165. link> doi>
  • Exley C, Siesjö P, Eriksson H. 2010. The immunobiology of aluminium adjuvants: how do they really work?. Trends Immunol, vol. 31(3), 103-109. link> doi>
  • Burrell S-AM and Exley C. 2010. There is (still) too much aluminium in infant formulas. BMC Pediatr, vol. 10, 63. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2009. Darwin, natural selection and the biological essentiality of aluminium and silicon. Trends Biochem Sci, vol. 34(12), 589-593. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2009. Guest editorial. 'The natural history of aluminium: from non-selection to natural selection'. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 103(11), 1425. link> doi>
  • House E, Mold M, Collingwood J, Baldwin A, Goodwin S, Exley C. 2009. Copper abolishes the beta-sheet secondary structure of preformed amyloid fibrils of amyloid-beta(42). J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 18(4), 811-817. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2009. What happened to the epidemic in new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?. Med Hypotheses, vol. 72(6), 621-622. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2009. Silicon and bone. BONE, vol. 44(5), 1018. link> doi>
  • Exley C, Swarbrick L, Gherardi RK, Authier F-J. 2009. A role for the body burden of aluminium in vaccine-associated macrophagic myofasciitis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Med Hypotheses, vol. 72(2), 135-139. link> doi>
  • Beardmore J and Exley C. 2009. Towards a model of non-equilibrium binding of metal ions in biological systems. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 103(2), 205-209. link> doi>
  • Maingon R, Khela A, Sampson C, Ward R, Walker K, Exley C. 2008. Aluminium: a natural adjuvant in Leishmania transmission via sand flies?. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, vol. 102(11), 1140-1142. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2008. Comment on "avoidance of aluminum toxicity in freshwater snails involves intracellular silicon-aluminum biointeraction". ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, vol. 42(14), 5374. link> doi>
  • Ward B, Walker K, Exley C. 2008. Copper(II) inhibits the formation of amylin amyloid in vitro. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 102(2), 371-375. link> doi>
  • Nicholson S and Exley C. 2007. Aluminum: A potential pro-oxidant in sunscreens/sunblocks?. FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, vol. 43(8), 1216-1217. link> doi>
  • Beardmore J, Rugg G, Exley C. 2007. A systems biology approach to the blood-aluminium problem: the application and testing of a computational model. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 101(9), 1187-1191. link> doi>
  • Exley C, Charles LM, Barr L, Martin C, Polwart A, Darbre PD. 2007. Aluminium in human breast tissue. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 101(9), 1344-1346. link> doi>
  • Exley C, Ahmed U, Polwart A, Bloor RN. 2007. Elevated urinary aluminium in current and past users of illicit heroin. Addict Biol, vol. 12(2), 197-199. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2007. Organosilicon therapy in Alzheimer's disease?. J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 11(3), 301-302. link>
  • Quintal-Tun F, Munoz-Sanchez JA, Ramos-Diaz A, Escamilla-Bencomo A, Martinez-Estevez M, Exley C, Hernandez-Sotomayor SMT. 2007. Aluminium-induced phospholipid signal transduction pathway in Coffea arabica suspension cells and its amelioration by silicic acid. JOURNAL OF INORGANIC BIOCHEMISTRY, vol. 101(2), 362-369. link> doi>
  • Exley C, Beardmore J, Rugg G. 2007. Computational approach to the blood-aluminum problem?. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, vol. 107(2), 275-278. doi>
  • Exley C, Beardmore J, Rugg G. 2007. Computational approach to the blood-aluminum problem?. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF QUANTUM CHEMISTRY, vol. 107(2), 275-278. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2007. Aluminium, tau and Alzheimer's disease. JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE, vol. 12(4), 313-315. link>
  • Strekopytov S, Jarry E, Exley C. 2006. Further insight into the mechanism of formation of hydroxyaluminosilicates. POLYHEDRON, vol. 25(17), 3399-3404. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2006. A vexing Commentary on the important issue of aluminium and Alzheimer' disease. J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 10(4), 451-452. link>
  • Exley C. 2006. Aluminium and iron, but neither copper nor zinc, are key to the precipitation of beta-sheets of Abeta_{42} in senile plaque cores in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 10(2-3), 173-177. link>
  • Exley C, Mamutse G, Korchazhkina O, Pye E, Strekopytov S, Polwart A, Hawkins C. 2006. Elevated urinary excretion of aluminium and iron in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler, vol. 12(5), 533-540. link> doi>
  • Exley C, Korchazhkina O, Job D, Strekopytov S, Polwart A, Crome P. 2006. Non-invasive therapy to reduce the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 10(1), 17-24. link>
  • Exley C and Esiri MM. 2006. Severe cerebral congophilic angiopathy coincident with increased brain aluminium in a resident of Camelford, Cornwall, UK. JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY, vol. 77(7), Article ARTN 877. link> doi>
  • Exley C and Esiri MM. 2006. Severe cerebral congophilic angiopathy coincident with increased brain aluminium in a resident of Camelford, Cornwall, UK. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 77(7), 877-879. link> doi>
  • Exley C and Esiri M. 2006. Vascular variant of Alzheimer's disease in a patient with elevated brain aluminium and previous high aluminium exposure. JOURNAL OF NEURAL TRANSMISSION, vol. 113(6), X. link>
  • Strekopytov S and Exley C. 2006. Thermal analyses of aluminium hydroxide and hydroxyaluminosilicates. POLYHEDRON, vol. 25(8), 1707-1713. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2006. Aluminium-adsorbed vaccines. LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES, vol. 6(4), 189. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2006. Funding should recognize outcome, not income. Nature, vol. 440. doi>
  • Exley C, Begum A, Woolley MP, Bloor RN. 2006. Aluminum in tobacco and cannabis and smoking-related disease. Am J Med, vol. 119(3), 276.e9-276.11. link> doi>
  • EXLEY C, Dobson J, Khan A. 2006. Redox cycling of iron by Aβ42. Free Radical Biology and Medicine , vol. 40(4), 557-569. doi>
  • Khan A, Ashcroft AE, Higenell V, Korchazhkina OV, Exley C. 2005. Metals accelerate the formation and direct the structure of amyloid fibrils of NAC. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 99(9), 1920-1927. link> doi>
  • EXLEY C and Strekopytov S. 2005. The formation, precipitation and structural characterisation of hydroxyaluminosilicates formed in the presence of fluoride and phosphate. Polyhedron , vol. Volume 24 Issue 12(12), 1585-1592. doi>
  • Exley C. 2005. Comment on "The biological behaviour and bioavailability of aluminium in man" by N. D. Priest, JEM, 2004, 6, 375. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING, vol. 7(6), 640. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2005. The pro-oxidant activity of aluminum. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 38(2), 294. doi>
  • Exley C. 2005. The aluminium-amyloid cascade hypothesis and Alzheimer's disease. Subcell Biochem, vol. 38, 225-234. link>
  • Khan A, Ashcroft AE, Korchazhkina OV, Exley C. 2004. Metal-mediated formation of fibrillar ABri amyloid. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 98(12), 2006-2010. link> doi>
  • House E, Collingwood J, Khan A, Korchazkina O, Berthon G, Exley C. 2004. Aluminium, iron, zinc and copper influence the in vitro formation of amyloid fibrils of Abeta42 in a manner which may have consequences for metal chelation therapy in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 6(3), 291-301. link>
  • Exley C. 2004. Aluminium-containing DTP vaccines. Lancet Infect Dis, vol. 4(6), 324. link> doi>
  • EXLEY C. 2004. The pro-oxidant activity of aluminum. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 36(3), 380-387. doi>
  • Exley C. 2004. Aluminium in antipersperants:More than just skin deep. American Journal of Medicine. doi>
  • Schneider C, Doucet F, Strekopytov S, Exley C. 2004. The solubility of an hydroxyaluminosilicate. Polyhedron. doi>
  • Exley C. 2003. A biogeochemical cycle for aluminium?. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 97(1), 1-7. link> doi>
  • Korchazhkina O, Exley C, Andrew Spencer S. 2003. Measurement by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of malondialdehyde in normal human urine following derivatisation with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, vol. 794(2), 353-362. link> doi>
  • Korchazhkina OV, Ashcroft AE, Croom J, Exley C. 2003. Does either the gastrointestinal peptide PYY or the neuropeptide NPY bind aluminium?. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 94(4), 372-380. link> doi>
  • Korchazhkina O, Exley C, Spencer S A. 2003. Measurement by Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography of Malondialdehyde in Normal Human Urine Following Derivatization with 2,40Dinitrophenylhydrazine. J Chromatogr B, 353-362.
  • Korchazhkina OV, Ashcroft AE, Kiss T, Exley C. 2002. The degradation of Abeta(25-35) by the serine protease plasmin is inhibited by aluminium. J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 4(5), 357-367. link>
  • Schneider C and Exley C. 2002. Looking for equilibrium: the determination of an equilibrium constant to describe the formation of hydroxyaluminosilicates (HAS). GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA, vol. 66(15A), A683. link>
  • Dobson J, Gross B, Exley C. 2002. Role of magnetic iron oxides in beta-amyloid aggregation. Neurobiology in Ageing.
  • Exley C, Schneider C, Doucet FJ. 2002. The reaction of aluminium with silicic acid in acidic solution: an important mechanism in controlling the biological availability of aluminium?. Coordination Chemistry Reviews. doi>
  • Exley C and Korchazhkina OV. 2001. Plasmin cleaves Abeta42 in vitro and prevents its aggregation into beta-pleated sheet structures. Neuroreport, vol. 12(13), 2967-2970. link> doi>
  • Doucet FJ, Schneider C, Bones SJ, Kretchmer A, Moss I, Tekely P, Exley C. 2001. The formation of hydroxyaluminosilicates of geochemical and biological significance. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 65(15), 2461-2467. doi>
  • Exley C and Korchazhkina OV. 2001. Promotion of formation of amyloid fibrils by aluminium adenosine triphosphate (A1ATP). Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. doi>
  • Pepys HB, Collinge J, Barron LD, Collinge J, Masel J, Tahari-Alaoui A, Lansbury P, Exley C, Feizi T. 2001. The molecular biology of prion propagation - Discussion. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, vol. 356(1406), 194-195. link>
  • Exley C. 2001. Aluminum and Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 3(6), 551-552. link> doi>
  • Doucet FJ, Rotov ME, Exley C. 2001. Direct and indirect identifiction of the formation of hydroxyaluminosilicates in acidic solutions. Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 87(1-2), 71-79. doi>
  • Schneider C and Exley C. 2001. Silicic acid (Si(OH)\d4\u) is a significant influence upon the atomic absorption signal of aluminium measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). vol. 87(1-2), 45-50. doi>
  • Exley C. 2000. Avoidance of aluminum by rainbow trout. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, vol. 19(4), 933-939. link>
  • Korchazhkina O, Wright G, Exley C. 1999. No effect of aluminium upon the hydrolysis of ATP in the coronary circulation of the isolated working rat heart. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 76(2), 121-126. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 1999. A molecular mechanism of aluminium-induced Alzheimer's disease?. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 76(2), 133-140. link> doi>
  • Korchazhkina O, Wright G, Exley C. 1999. Intravascular ATP and coronary vasodilation in the isolated working rat heart. Br J Pharmacol, vol. 127(3), 701-708. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 1998. The precipitation of mucin by aluminium. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 70(3-4), 195-206. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 1998. Does antiperspirant use increase the risk of aluminium-related disease, including Alzheimer's disease?. Mol Med Today, vol. 4(3), 107-109. link> doi>
  • Korchazhkina O, Wright G, Exley C. 1998. Action of Al-ATP on the isolated working rat heart. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 69(3), 153-158. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 1998. Silicon in life: A bioinorganic solution to bioorganic essentiality. JOURNAL OF INORGANIC BIOCHEMISTRY, vol. 69(3), 139-144. link> doi>
  • Exley C, Pinnegar JK, Taylor H. 1997. Hydroxyaluminosilicates and acute aluminium toxicity in fish. J Theor Biol, vol. 189(2), 133-139. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 1997. ATP-promoted amyloidosis of an amyloid beta peptide. Neuroreport, vol. 8(15), 3411-3414. link> doi>
  • Exley C and Birchall JD. 1996. Biological availability of aluminum in commercial ATP. JOURNAL OF INORGANIC BIOCHEMISTRY, vol. 63(4), 241-252. link> doi>
  • Exley C, Burgess E, Day JP, Jeffery EH, Melethil S, Yokel RA. 1996. Aluminum toxicokinetics. J Toxicol Environ Health, vol. 48(6), 569-584. link> doi>
  • Savory J, Exley C, Forbes WF, Huang Y, Joshi JG, Kruck T, McLachlan DRC, Wakayama I. 1996. Can the controversy of the role of aluminum in Alzheimer's disease be resolved? What are the suggested approaches to this controversy and methodological issues to be considered?. JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, vol. 48(6), 615-635. link> doi>
  • Harris WR, Berthon G, Day JP, Exley C, Flaten TP, Forbes WF, Kiss T, Orvig C, Zatta PF. 1996. Speciation of aluminum in biological systems. JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, vol. 48(6), 543-568. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 1996. Aluminium in the brain and heart of the rainbow trout. JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, vol. 48(4), 706-713. link> doi>
  • Exley C, Wicks AJ, Hubert RB, Birchall JD. 1996. Kinetic constraints in acute aluminium toxicity in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Theor Biol, vol. 179(1), 25-31. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 1996. In vitro toxicity of beta-amyloid. BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, vol. 314, 709. link> doi>
  • Exley C and Birchall JD. 1996. Silicic acid and the biological availability of aluminium. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, vol. 47(1), 137. link> doi>
  • Exley C. 1996. Amyloid, aluminium and the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, vol. 164(4), 252-253. link>
  • EXLEY C and BIRCHALL JD. 1995. PROGRESS IN ALUMINUM TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY - 2-3 MARCH 1995. BIOMETALS, vol. 8(3), 271-272. link>
  • Exley C, Schley L, Murray S, Hackney CM, Birchall JD. 1995. Aluminium, beta-amyloid and non-enzymatic glycosylation. FEBS Lett, vol. 364(2), 182-184. link> doi>
  • EXLEY C and BIRCHALL JD. 1995. AN ASSESSMENT OF COMPLEX-FORMATION BETWEEN ALUMINUM AND SILICIC-ACID IN ACIDIC SOLUTIONS - COMMENT. GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA, vol. 59(5), 1017. link> doi>
  • Exley C, Price NC, Birchall JD. 1994. Aluminum inhibition of hexokinase activity in vitro: a study in biological availability. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 54(4), 297-304. link> doi>
  • EXLEY C, WICKS AJ, HUBERT RB, BIRCHALL JD. 1994. POLYNUCLEAR ALUMINUM AND ACUTE ALUMINUM TOXICITY IN THE FISH. JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL BIOLOGY, vol. 167(4), 415-416. link> doi>
  • EXLEY C, TOLLERVEY A, GRAY G, ROBERTS S, BIRCHALL JD. 1993. SILICON, ALUMINUM AND THE BIOLOGICAL AVAILABILITY OF PHOSPHORUS IN ALGAE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, vol. 253(1336), 93-99. link> doi>
  • Exley C, Price NC, Kelly SM, Birchall JD. 1993. An interaction of beta-amyloid with aluminium in vitro. FEBS Lett, vol. 324(3), 293-295. link> doi>
  • EXLEY C and BIRCHALL JD. 1993. A MECHANISM OF HYDROXYALUMINOSILICATE FORMATION. POLYHEDRON, vol. 12(9), 1007-1017. link> doi>
  • Exley C and Birchall JD. 1993. Aluminium and Alzheimer's Disease. Age and Ageing, vol. 22(5), 391-392. doi>
  • Exley C and Birchall JD. 1992. The cellular toxicity of aluminium. J Theor Biol, vol. 159(1), 83-98. link> doi>
  • EXLEY C and BIRCHALL JD. 1992. HYDROXYALUMINOSILICATE FORMATION IN SOLUTIONS OF LOW TOTAL ALUMINUM CONCENTRATION. POLYHEDRON, vol. 11(15), 1901-1907. link> doi>
  • EXLEY C and STRUTHERS W. 1992. THE LOCALIZATION OF ALUMINUM IN THE TISSUES OF THE RAINBOW-TROUT. AQUACULTURE, vol. 100(1-3), 323-324. link> doi>
  • Exley C, Chappell JS, Birchall JD. 1991. A mechanism for acute aluminium toxicity in fish. J Theor Biol, vol. 151(3), 417-428. link> doi>
  • BIRCHALL JD, EXLEY C, CHAPPELL JS, PHILLIPS MJ. 1989. ACUTE TOXICITY OF ALUMINUM TO FISH ELIMINATED IN SILICON-RICH ACID WATERS. NATURE, vol. 338(6211), 146-148. link> doi>
  • Martinez CS, Piagette JT, Escobar AG, Martín Á, Palacios R, Peçanha FM, Vassallo DV, Exley C, Alonso MJ, Miguel M, Salaices M, Wiggers GA. 2017. Aluminum exposure at human dietary levels promotes vascular dysfunction and increases blood pressure in rats: A concerted action of NAD(P)H oxidase and COX-2. Toxicology, vol. 390, 10-21. link> doi>
  • Crepeaux G, Eidi H, David MO, Giros B, Authier FJ, Exley C, Shaw C, Cadusseau J, Gherardi R. 2016. Low concentrations of aluminium hydroxide adjuvant, forming limited size aggregates, selectivity induce cerebral aluminum increase and long-term neurotoxicity in mouse. Morphologie, vol. 100(330), 160-161. doi> link>

Chapters

  • Exley C. 2009. Silicon in life: whither biological silicification?. (vol. 47). link> doi>
  • Exley C. 2008. Aluminium and Medicine. In Molecular and Supramolecular Bioinorganic Chemistry. Mercê ALR, Felcman J, Recio MAL (Eds.). Nova Biomedical.
  • Exley C. 2007. The solubility of hydroxyaluminosilicates and the biological availability of aluminium. In Thermodynamics, solubility and environmental issues. Letcher TM (Ed.). Elsevier Science Ltd, Amsterdam.
  • Exley C. 2005. The Aluminium-Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis and Alzheimer's Disease. In Alzheimer's disease. Harris JR and Fahrenholz F (Eds.). Springer Verlag.
  • Exley C and Korchazhkina O. 2001. The Association of Aluminium and $beta$ Amyloid in Alzheimer's Disease. In Aluminium and Alzheimer's Disease: The Science that Describes the Link. Exley C (Ed.). Elsevier Science B.V, Amsterdam.
  • Exley C. 2001. Why is research into aluminium and life important?. In Aluminium and Alzheimer's Disease: The Science that Desribes the Link. Exley C (Ed.). Elsevier Science Ltd, Amsterdam.
  • Exley C, Burgess E, Day JP, Jeffery EH, Melethil S, Yokel RA. 1997. Aluminium toxicokinetics. In Research issues in aluminum toxicity. Yokel RA and Golub MS (Eds.). Informa HealthCare.
  • Savory J, Exley C, Forbes WF, Huang Y, Joshi JG, Kruck T, McLachlan DRC, Wakayama I. 1997. Can the controversy of the role of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease be resolved. What are the suggested approaches to this controversy and methodological issues to be considered. In Research issues in aluminum toxicity. Yokel RA and Golub MS (Eds.). Informa HealthCare.
  • Harris WR, Berthon G, Day JP, Exley C, Flaten TP, Forbes WF, Kiss T, Orvig C, Zatta PF. 1997. Speciation of aluminiumn in biological systems. In Research issues in aluminum toxicity. Yokel RA and Golub MS (Eds.). Informa HealthCare.
  • Birchall D and Exley C. 1992. Silicon and the bioavailability of aluminium. In Metal compounds in environment and life, 4 (interrelation between chemistry and biology). Merian E and Haerdi W (Eds.). CRC Press.

Other

  • Heath MD, Exley C, Hutchings JW, Skinner MA. 2014. L-tyrosine: benefits as a depot adjuvant. ALLERGY (vol. 69, p. 561). link>