Professor Christopher A. Ramsden

Title: Emeritus Professor of Organic Chemistry
Phone: (+44) 01782 7 33045
Email: c.a.ramsden@keele.ac.uk
Location: Lennard-Jones 1.03
Role: Second Year Tutor (Chemistry) Post-graduate Tutor (Chemistry)
Contacting me:
Ramsden_Chris

I was born in Manchester, UK in 1946. I graduated from Sheffield University and received my PhD (W. D. Ollis) in 1970 and DSc in 1990. After post-doctoral work at the University of Texas (M. J. S. Dewar)(1971-3) and University of East Anglia (A. R. Katritzky)(1973-6), I worked in the pharmaceutical industry. I moved to Keele University as Professor of Organic Chemistry in 1992. My research interests are heterocycles and three-centre bonds and applications of their chemistry to biological problems.

Recent research activities have been focussed on the copper-containing enzyme tyrosinase, which is responsible for oxidising phenols in the early stages of the biosynthesis of the pigment melanin. We have investigated aspects of the subtly different mechanism by which tyrosinase oxidises phenols and catechols by designing and synthesising appropriate substrates. More recently we have investigated the long-standing problem of why catechols slowly inhibit tyrosinase and have proposed a reductive-elimination mechanism that leads to irreversible formation of copper(0) in the active site. This work has lead to the investigation of new ortho-quinone chemistry and the formation of new heterocyclic systems.

We are also interested in imidazole derivatives. Simple imidazole derivatives are useful building blocks for more complex natural product analogues. We are particularly interested in the chemistry of aminoimidazoles. Although 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of purines, the chemistry of simple aminoimidazoles has received little study and we have found them to be useful intermediates for the synthesis of a variety of interesting new molecules. Targets include peptide analogues, oligonucleotide analogues, antiviral agents and anticancer compounds.

We have a long-standing interest in the chemistry of molecules that can only be represented by hypervalent or dipolar structures. Molecules of this type form a very large class of possible structures and they can all be considered to contain three-centre four-electron bonds. This diverse family of structures includes, for example, heterocyclic pyridinium-3-olates and xenon difluoride. Although diverse, because of their similar bonding, molecules containing three-centre four-electron bonds undergo similar general types of reaction and we are interested in exploring applications of these reactions to achieve useful new methodology. Current interests include the use of the cheap and non-toxic (diacetoxyiodo)benzene in organic synthesis and fluorination using xenon difluoride.

Selected Publications

  • Ramsden CA. 2013. Heterocyclic mesomeric betaines: the recognition of five classes and nine sub-classes based on connectivity-matrix analysis. TETRAHEDRON, vol. 69(20), 4146-4159. link> doi>
  • Stratford MRL, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 2013. Mechanistic studies of the inactivation of tyrosinase by resorcinol. Bioorg Med Chem, vol. 21(5), 1166-1173. link> doi>
  • Lothian AP, Ramsden CA, Shaw MM, Smith RG. 2011. ipso-Fluorination of aryltrimethylsilanes using xenon difluoride. TETRAHEDRON, vol. 67(15), 2788-2793. link> doi>
  • Stratford MRL, Riley PA, Ramsden CA. 2011. Rapid halogen substitution and dibenzodioxin formation during tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of 4-halocatechols. Chem Res Toxicol, vol. 24(3), 350-356. link> doi>
  • Ramsden CA and Riley PA. 2010. Mechanistic studies of tyrosinase suicide inactivation. Arkivoc, 260-274.

Full Publications List show

Books

  • Katritzky AR, Ramsden CA, Joule JA, Zhdankin VV. 2010. Handbook of Heterocyclic Chemistry. Elsevier.
  • Katritzky AR, Ramsden CA, Scriven EFV, Taylor RJK. 2008. Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III. Elsevier Science Ltd.
  • Ramsden CA. 2007. Science of synthesis Vol 31.

Journal Articles

  • Ramsden CA. 2013. Heterocyclic mesomeric betaines: the recognition of five classes and nine sub-classes based on connectivity-matrix analysis. TETRAHEDRON, vol. 69(20), 4146-4159. link> doi>
  • Stratford MRL, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 2013. Mechanistic studies of the inactivation of tyrosinase by resorcinol. Bioorg Med Chem, vol. 21(5), 1166-1173. link> doi>
  • Stratford MRL, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 2012. The influence of hydroquinone on tyrosinase kinetics. Bioorg Med Chem, vol. 20(14), 4364-4370. link> doi>
  • Lothian AP, Ramsden CA, Shaw MM, Smith RG. 2011. ipso-Fluorination of aryltrimethylsilanes using xenon difluoride. TETRAHEDRON, vol. 67(15), 2788-2793. link> doi>
  • Stratford MRL, Riley PA, Ramsden CA. 2011. Rapid halogen substitution and dibenzodioxin formation during tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of 4-halocatechols. Chem Res Toxicol, vol. 24(3), 350-356. link> doi>
  • Shaw MM, Smith RG, Ramsden CA. 2011. F-19 NMR and UV studies of xenon difluoride solution-vessel stability and its relevance to the fluorination of organic substrates. ARKIVOC, 221-U976. link>
  • Ramsden CA and Riley PA. 2010. Mechanistic studies of tyrosinase suicide inactivation. Arkivoc, 260-274.
  • Ramsden CA and Riley PA. 2010. Studies of the competing rates of catechol oxidation and suicide inactivation of tyrosinase. ARKIVOC, 248-254.
  • Krygowski TM, Oziminski WP, Ramsden CA. 2011. Sigma- and pi- electron structure of aza-azoles. J Mol Model, vol. 17(6), 1427-1433. link> doi>
  • Ramsden CA. 2010. The influence of aza-substitution on azole aromaticity. TETRAHEDRON, vol. 66(14), 2695-2699. link> doi>
  • Ramsden CA. 2010. Heterocycle-Forming Reactions of 1,2-Benzoquinones. ADVANCES IN HETEROCYLIC CHEMISTRY, VOL 100, vol. 100, 1-51. link> doi>
  • Ramsden CA, Stratford MRL, Riley PA. 2009. The influence of catechol structure on the suicide-inactivation of tyrosinase. Org Biomol Chem, vol. 7(17), 3388-3390. link> doi>
  • Ramsden CA and Shaw MM. 2009. Fluorodecarboxylation, rearrangement and cyclisation: the influence of structure and environment on the reactions of carboxylic acids with xenon difluoride. TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 50(26), 3321-3324. link> doi>
  • Crawford JA, Fraser W, Ramsden CA. 2009. Preparation of 9-Substituted Pyridine-Stretched Adenines and Hypoxanthines. SYNTHESIS-STUTTGART, 1271-1278. link> doi>
  • Land EJ, Perona A, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 2009. Dopamine quinone chemistry: a study of the influence of amide, amidine and guanidine substituents [-NH-CX-Y] on the mode of reaction. Org Biomol Chem, vol. 7(5), 944-950. link> doi>
  • Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA, Stratford MRL. 2008. Evidence consistent with the requirement of cresolase activity for suicide inactivation of tyrosinase. Tohoku J Exp Med, vol. 216(3), 231-238. link> doi>
  • Farn RD, Morgan NG, Ramsden CA. 2008. Preparation of analogues of efaroxan and KU14R as potential imidazoline receptor subtype 3 ligands. JOURNAL OF HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 45(3), 887-896. link> doi>
  • Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA, Stratford MRL. 2008. Studies of para-quinomethane formation during the tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of 4-alkylcatechols. ARKIVOC, 258-267. link>
  • Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 2007. ortho-Quinone amines and derivatives: the influence of structure on the rates and modes of intramolecular reaction. ARKIVOC, 23-36. link>
  • Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 2007. The mechanism of suicide-inactivation of tyrosinase: a substrate structure investigation. Tohoku J Exp Med, vol. 212(4), 341-348. link> doi>
  • Edge R, d'Ischia M, Land EJ, Napolitano A, Navaratnam S, Panzella L, Pezzella A, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 2006. Dopaquinone redox exchange with dihydroxyindole and dihydroxyindole carboxylic acid. Pigment Cell Res, vol. 19(5), 443-450. link> doi>
  • Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 2006. An MO study of regioselective amine addition to ortho-quinones relevant to melanogenesis. TETRAHEDRON, vol. 62(20), 4884-4891. link> doi>
  • Borovansky J, Edge R, Land EJ, Navaratnam S, Pavel S, Ramsden CA, Riley PA, Smit NPM. 2006. Mechanistic studies of melanogenesis: the influence of N-substitution on dopamine quinone cyclization. Pigment Cell Res, vol. 19(2), 170-178. link> doi>
  • Ramsden CA and Milata V. 2006. 2-aminofurans and 3-aminofurans. ADVANCES IN HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY, VOL 92, vol. 92, 1-54. link> doi>
  • Clayton R and Ramsden CA. 2005. N-vinyl-nitroimidazole cycloadditions: Potential routes to nucleoside analogues. SYNTHESIS-STUTTGART, 2695-2700. link> doi>
  • Land EJ, Perona A, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 2005. Oxidation of N-substituted dopamine derivatives: irreversible formation of a spirocyclic product. Org Biomol Chem, vol. 3(13), 2387-2388. link> doi>
  • D'Ischia M, Napolitano A, Pezzella A, Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 2005. 5,6-dihydroxyrindoles and Indole-5,6-diones. ADVANCES IN HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY, VOL 89, vol. 89, 1-63. link> doi>
  • Clayton R and Ramsden CA. 2004. Routes to N-vinyl-nitroimidazoles and N-vinyl-deazapurines. JOURNAL OF HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 41(5), 701-705. link> doi>
  • Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA, Yoganathan G. 2004. Mechanistic studies of catechol generation from secondary quinone amines relevant to indole formation and tyrosinase activation (vol 16, pg 397, 2003). PIGMENT CELL RESEARCH, vol. 17(2), 206. link>
  • Ramsden RA. 2004. The influence of electronegativitry on triangular three-centre two-electron bonds: the relative stability of carbonium ions, p-complex chemistry and the 2h? effect. Tetrahedron. doi>
  • Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA, Yoganathan G. 2003. Formation of para-quinomethanus via 4-aminobutylcatechol oxidation and ortho-quinone tuntomerism. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry. doi>
  • Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA, Yoganathan G. 2003. Mechanistic studies of catechol generation from secondary quinone amines relevant to indole formation and tyrosinase activation. Pigment Cell Res, vol. 16(4), 397-406. link> doi>
  • Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 2003. Tyrosinase autoactivation and the chemistry of ortho-quinone amines. Acc Chem Res, vol. 36(5), 300-308. link> doi>
  • Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA, Yoganathan G. 2003. 4-Cyanomethyl-ortho-quinone tuntomerism and the structure of the dienophile in Gates morphine synthesis. Tetrahedron. doi>
  • Saxon C, Brindley S, Jervis N, Jones GR, Morgan ED, Ramsden CR. 2002. The world's first "pastarimeter": an analogous demonstration of polarimetry using pasta fusilli. Journal of Chemical Education. doi>
  • Shaw MM, Smith RG, Ramsden CA. 2002. The reaction of xenon difluoride with chloroform. Journal of Fluorine Chemistry. doi>
  • Gelbrich T, Humphries M, Hursthouse MB, Ramsden CA. 2002. Preparation of 4-benzylsulfanyl[1,2,3,5]dithiadiazol-1-ylium chlorides: potential precursors to meso-ionic 1,2,3,5-dithiadiazolium-4-thiolate. Arkivoc, 224-233.
  • Ramsden CA. 2002. Influence of Electronegativity on Reactions Involving Triangular Three-Centre, Two-Electron Bonds: The-2h$beta$ Effect. Journal Physical Chemistry A, vol. 106(12), 2777-2780. doi>
  • Clayton R, Davis ML, Fraser W, Li W, Ramsden CA. 2002. Synthesis of Pyridine-stretched 2'-Deoxynucleosides. Synlett.
  • Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 2001. Pulse radiolysis studies of ortho-quinone chemistry relevant to melanogenesis. J Photochem Photobiol B, vol. 64(2-3), 123-135. link> doi>
  • Constantinou M, Aigbirhio FI, Smith RG, Ramsden CA, Pike VW. 2001. Xenon difluoride exchanges fluoride under mild conditions: a simple preparation of [(18)F]xenon difluoride for PET and mechanistic studies. J Am Chem Soc, vol. 123(8), 1780-1781. link> doi>
  • Clews J, Morgan NG, Ramsden CA. 2001. Preparation of Novel 2-(Benzo[b]furan-2-yl)-1H-imidazolines for Photoaffinity labelling and Affinity Isolation of Imidazoline Binding Proteins. J. Heterocyclic Chemistry.
  • Clews J, Morgan NG, Ramsden CAR. 2001. Preparation of the l\d3\u imidazoline receptor antagonist KU14R and related 2,3-dihydrobenzo[\fIb\fPfuran derivatives. Synthesis, 1546-1550.
  • Ramsden CA. 2001. The Noble Hydrocarbons. Chemistry and Industry, 343-344.
  • Bobsikovc W, Clegg W, Coles SJ, Dondarova M, Hursthouse MB, Kiss T, Krutosikova A, Liptaj T, Pronayova N, Ramsden CA. 2001. The Oxidative Rearrangement of Furan-2-carboximidamides: Preparation and Properties of 2-Acylaminofurans. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Transactions 1, 680-689. doi>
  • Hamlyn RJ, Jones RH, Ramsden CA. 2000. Carbon-carbon bond formation via thermal intermolecular hydrogen atom transfer: two serendipitous heterocyclic examples. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 1811-1813. link> doi>
  • Clews J, Cooksey CJ, Garratt PJ, Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 2000. Oxidative cyclisation of N,N-dialkylcatechol amines to heterocyclic betaines via o-quinones: synthetic, pulse radiolytic and enzyme studies. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 4306-4315. link> doi>
  • Ramsden CA and Smith RG. 1999. Reaction of silyl enol ethers with xenon difluoride in MeCN: Evidence for a nonclassical radical cation intermediate. ORGANIC LETTERS, vol. 1(10), 1591-1594. link> doi>
  • Humphries MJ and Ramsden CA. 1999. A fresh AIR synthesis. SYNTHESIS-STUTTGART, 985-992. link>
  • Monks LK, Cosgrove KE, Dunne MJ, Ramsden CA, Morgan NG, Chan SL. 1999. Affinity isolation of imidazoline binding proteins from rat brain using 5-amino-efaroxan as a ligand. FEBS Lett, vol. 447(1), 61-64. link> doi>
  • Curtis ADM, McCague R, Ramsden CA, Raza RR. 1999. Preparation, characterisation and slow quantitative dissociation of a novel asymmetric N-unsubstituted dialkylsulfimide. CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 189-190. link> doi>
  • Chan SL, Pallett AL, Clews J, Ramsden CA, Chapman JC, Kane C, Dunne MJ, Morgan NG. 1998. Characterisation of new efaroxan derivatives for use in purification of imidazoline-binding sites. Eur J Pharmacol, vol. 355(1), 67-76. link> doi>
  • Morrow N, Ramsden CA, Sargent BJ, Wallett CD. 1998. Oxidative decarbonylation of beta-arylpyruvic acids using sodium perborate. TETRAHEDRON, vol. 54(33), 9603-9612. link> doi>
  • Ramsden CA. 1998. A PMO model of pyrazolone N,N-dioxides and N2O4 and a rationalisation of their remarkably long N-N bonds. TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 39(32), 5839-5840. link> doi>
  • Cooksey CJ, Garratt PJ, Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 1998. Tyrosinase kinetics: failure of the auto-activation mechanism of monohydric phenol oxidation by rapid formation of a quinomethane intermediate. Biochem J, vol. 333 ( Pt 3), 685-691. link> doi>
  • Ramsden CA and Smith RG. 1998. On the modes of reaction of xenon difluoride with organic substrates: The influence of solvent and vessel. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 120(27), 6842-6843. link> doi>
  • Aigbirhio FI, Pike VW, Smith RG, Ramsden CA. 1998. Incorporation of [F-18]fluoride into xenon difluoride. JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE, vol. 39(5), 231P-232P. link>
  • Clews J, Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 1998. A mild and selective route to p-quinomethanes using dianisyltellurium oxide. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 1009-1011. link> doi>
  • Clews J, Cooksey CJ, Garratt PJ, Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 1998. Novel heterocyclic betaines relevant to the mechanism of tyrosinase-catalysed oxidation of phenols. CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 77-78. link> doi>
  • Cooksey CJ, Garratt PJ, Land EJ, Pavel S, Ramsden CA, Riley PA, Smit NP. 1997. Evidence of the indirect formation of the catecholic intermediate substrate responsible for the autoactivation kinetics of tyrosinase. J Biol Chem, vol. 272(42), 26226-26235. link> doi>
  • Ramsden CA and Rose HL. 1997. Oxidative rearrangement and cyclisation of N-substituted amidines using iodine(III) reagents and the influence of leaving group on mode of reaction. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 2319-2327. link> doi>
  • Bodajla M, Jones GR, Ramsden CA. 1997. A stereoselective intramolecular retro-ene reaction catalysed by aluminium chloride. TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 38(14), 2573-2576. link> doi>
  • Chan SL, Pallett AL, Clews J, Ramsden CA, Morgan NG. 1997. Evidence that the ability of imidazoline compounds to stimulate insulin secretion is not due to interaction with sigma receptors. Eur J Pharmacol, vol. 323(2-3), 241-244. link> doi>
  • Nongkunsarn P and Ramsden CA. 1997. Oxidative rearrangement of imines to formamides using sodium perborate. TETRAHEDRON, vol. 53(10), 3805-3830. link> doi>
  • Riley PA, Cooksey CJ, Johnson CI, Land EJ, Latter AM, Ramsden CA. 1997. Melanogenesis-targeted anti-melanoma pro-drug development: effect of side-chain variations on the cytotoxicity of tyrosinase-generated ortho-quinones in a model screening system. Eur J Cancer, vol. 33(1), 135-143. link> doi>
  • Ramsden CA and Rose HL. 1997. Reaction of hydrazones with methoxy(tosyloxy)iodobenzene (MTIB): Tosylate formation under oxidative conditions. SYNLETT, 27-&. link>
  • Krutosikova A, Ramsden CA, Dandarova M, Lycka A. 1997. Synthesis and reactions of furo[1,3-b]pyrroles. MOLECULES, vol. 2(4), 69-79. link> doi>
  • Cooksey CJ, Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 1996. Tyrosinase-mediated cytotoxicity of 4-substituted phenols: Quantitative structure-thiol-reactivity relationships of the derived o-quinones (vol 10, pg 119, 1995). ANTI-CANCER DRUG DESIGN, vol. 11(8), 637. link>
  • Cooksey CJ, Land EJ, Rushton FAP, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 1996. Tyrosinase-mediated cytotoxicity of 4-substituted phenols: Use of QSAR to forecast reactivities of thiols towards the derived ortho-quinones. QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS, vol. 15(6), 498-503. link> doi>
  • Morgan NG, Pallett AL, Mourtada M, Chan SLF, Clews J, Ramsden CA. 1996. Synthesis and characterisation of KU14R a novel antagonist of the pancreatic islet imidazoline binding site. DIABETOLOGIA, vol. 39, 456. link>
  • Jones RH, Ramsden CA, Rose HL. 1996. A novel photoaddition of 2-phenylbenzimidazole. JOURNAL OF HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 33(4), 1031-1034. link> doi>
  • Jones RH, Lothian AP, Ramsden CA. 1996. 5-amino-1,2-dimethylimidazole. ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION C-CRYSTAL STRUCTURE COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 52, 982-984. link> doi>
  • Ramsden CA, Sargent BJ, Wallett CD. 1996. A novel decarbonylation of heterocyclic pyruvic acid derivatives using sodium perborate. TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 37(11), 1901-1904. link> doi>
  • Nongkunsarn P and Ramsden CA. 1996. Rearrangement and radical mediated decarboxylation of trimethylsilyl benzoates using xenon difluoride. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 121-122. link> doi>
  • RAMSDEN CA and ROSE HL. 1995. REARRANGEMENT AND CYCLO-ALPHA-ELIMINATION OF N-SUSTITUTED AMIDINES USING (DIACETOXYIODO)BENZENE. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 615-617. link> doi>
  • Cooksey CJ, Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 1995. Tyrosinase-mediated cytotoxicity of 4-substituted phenols: quantitative structure-thiol-reactivity relationships of the derived o-quinones. Anticancer Drug Des, vol. 10(2), 119-129. link>
  • HUMPHRIES MJ and RAMSDEN CA. 1995. A SHORT SYNTHESIS AND BIOMIMETIC TRANSFORMATION OF 5-AMINOIMIDAZOLE RIBONUCLEOSIDE (AIRS). SYNLETT, 203-204. link>
  • RAMSDEN CA. 1994. NONBONDING MOLECULAR-ORBITALS AND THE CHEMISTRY OF NONCLASSICAL ORGANIC-MOLECULES. CHEMICAL SOCIETY REVIEWS, vol. 23(2), 111-118. link> doi>
  • LYTHGOE DJ and RAMSDEN CA. 1994. 4-UNSUBSTITUTED, 5-AMINO AND 5-UNSUBSTITUTED, 4-AMINOIMIDAZOLES. ADVANCES IN HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY, VOL 61, vol. 61, 1-58. link> doi>
  • NONGKUNSARN P and RAMSDEN CA. 1993. AN OXIDATIVE REARRANGEMENT OF C,N-DIARYLALDIMINES TO FORMAMIDES USING SODIUM PERBORATE. TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 34(42), 6773-6776. link> doi>
  • LOTHIAN AP and RAMSDEN CA. 1993. RAPID FLUORODESILYLATION OF ARYLTRIMETHYLSILANES USING XENON DIFLUORIDE - AN EFFICIENT NEW ROUTE TO AROMATIC FLUORIDES. SYNLETT, 753-755. link>
  • LYTHGOE DJ, MCCLENAGHAN I, RAMSDEN CA. 1993. A STUDY OF 2-AMINOFURANS. JOURNAL OF HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 30(1), 113-117. link> doi>
  • ALSHAAR AHM, GILMOUR DW, LYTHGOE DJ, MCCLENAGHAN I, RAMSDEN CA. 1992. PREPARATION, STRUCTURE AND ADDITION-REACTIONS OF 4-AMINOIMIDAZOLES AND 5-AMINOIMIDAZOLES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 2779-2788. link> doi>
  • ALSHAAR AHM, CHAMBERS RK, GILMOUR DW, LYTHGOE DJ, MCCLENAGHAN I, RAMSDEN CA. 1992. THE SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLES VIA ADDITION ELIMINATION-REACTIONS OF 4-AMINOIMIDAZOLES AND 5-AMINOIMIDAZOLES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 2789-2811. link> doi>
  • ALSHAAR AHM, GILMOUR DW, LYTHGOE DJ, MCCLENAGHAN I, RAMSDEN CA. 1989. THE REACTIONS OF C-METHYLHETEROCYCLES WITH THIONYL CHLORIDE .3. THE TRANSFORMATION OF SOME 5-MEMBERED AND 6-MEMBERED HETEROCYCLES. JOURNAL OF HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 26(6), 1819-1825. link> doi>
  • ALSHAAR AH, GILMOUR DW, LYTHGOE DJ, MCCLENAGHAN I, RAMSDEN CA. 1989. A NOVEL SYNTHESIS OF PURINE AND DEAZAPURINE DERIVATIVES FROM 5-AMINOIMIDAZOLES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 551-552. link> doi>
  • OLLIS WD, STANFORTH SP, RAMSDEN CA. 1989. HETEROCYCLIC MESOMERIC BETAINES .1. SYNTHESIS AND CYCLO-ADDITION REACTIONS OF HETERO DERIVATIVES OF THE PHENALENIDE ANION. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 945-952. link> doi>
  • OLLIS WD, STANFORTH SP, RAMSDEN CA. 1989. HETEROCYCLIC MESOMERIC BETAINES .2. SYNTHESIS OF A HETERO DERIVATIVE OF THE BENZO[B]PHENALENIDE ANION. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 953-956. link> doi>
  • OLLIS WD, STANFORTH SP, RAMSDEN CA. 1989. HETEROCYCLIC MESOMERIC BETAINES .3. SYNTHESIS AND BASE-CATALYZED EXCHANGE-REACTIONS OF N-METHYL-5H-PYRROLO[1,2-C]IMIDAZOLIUM IODIDE. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 957-960. link> doi>
  • OLLIS WD, STANFORTH SP, RAMSDEN CA. 1989. HETEROCYCLIC MESOMERIC BETAINES .4. REDUCTIVE CYCLIZATION OF DERIVATIVES OF 7-METHYL-2-(2'-NITROPHENYL)IMIDAZO[1,2-A]PYRIDINE. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 961-963. link> doi>
  • OLLIS WD, STANFORTH SP, RAMSDEN CA. 1989. HETEROCYCLIC MESOMERIC BETAINES .5. SYNTHESIS AND CYCLO-ADDITION REACTIONS OF HETERO DERIVATIVES OF THE 2-METHYLENE-1,2-DIHYDRO-1,3-PHENALENYLENE DIANION. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 965-968. link> doi>
  • ALSHAAR AHM, GILMOUR DW, LYTHGOE DJ, MCCLENAGHAN I, RAMSDEN CA. 1988. REACTIONS OF THIONYL CHLORIDE WITH C-METHYL HETEROCYCLES .1. THE FORMATION OF DICHLORO(2-QUINOLYL)METHANESULPHENYL CHLORIDES FROM 2-METHYLQUINOLINES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 3019-3023. link> doi>
  • ALSHAAR AHM, LYTHGOE DJ, MCCLENAGHAN I, RAMSDEN CA. 1988. REACTIONS OF THIONYL CHLORIDE WITH C-METHYL HETEROCYCLES .2. THE FORMATION OF [1,2]DITHIOLO[3,4-C]QUINOLIN-1-ONES AND BIS[DICHLORO(4-QUINOLYL)METHYL]-TRISULPHANES FROM 4-METHYLQUINOLINES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 3025-3028. link> doi>
  • Ford RE, Knowles P, Lunt E, Marshall SM, Penrose AJ, Ramsden CA, Summers AJ, Walker JL, Wright DE. 1986. Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationships of antiallergic 2-hydroxy-N-1H-tetrazol-5-ylbenzamides and N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-tetrazole-5-carboxamides. J Med Chem, vol. 29(4), 538-549. link> doi>
  • OLLIS WD, STANFORTH SP, RAMSDEN CA. 1985. HETEROCYCLIC MESOMERIC BETAINES. TETRAHEDRON, vol. 41(12), 2239-2329. link> doi>
  • BALES JR, MAZID MA, SADLER PJ, AGGARWAL A, KURODA R, NEIDLE S, GILMOUR DW, PEART BJ, RAMSDEN CA. 1985. PLATINUM(II) COMPLEXES OF NITROIMIDAZOLES - SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND X-RAY CRYSTAL-STRUCTURES OF CIS-DICHLOROBIS[1-(2'-HYDROXYETHYL)-2-HYDROXYMETHYL-5-NITROIMIDAZOLE)PLATINUM(II) AND TRANS-DICHLOROBIS-[1-(2'-HYDROXY-3'-METHOXYPROPYL)-2-NITROIMIDAZOLE]PLATINUM(II)S. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-DALTON TRANSACTIONS, 795-802. link> doi>
  • BALES JR, COULSON CJ, GILMOUR DW, MAZID MA, NEIDLE S, KURODA R, PEART BJ, RAMSDEN CA, SADLER PJ. 1983. THE PREPARATION AND ISOMERIZATION OF PLATINUM METRONIDAZOLE COMPLEXES - X-RAY CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR-STRUCTURES OF CIS AND TRANS-DICHLOROBIS[1-(2-HYDROXYETHYL)-2-METHYL-5-NITROIMIDAZOLE]-PLATINUM(II). JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 432-433. link> doi>
  • RAMSDEN CA. 1981. THE SMILES REARRANGEMENT OF 2-ARYLOXY-5-NITROPHENOXIDES - ATTEMPTED ROUTES TO BENZOXIRENS AND TRIBENZO[B,E,H]TRIOXONINS. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 2456-2463. link> doi>
  • KATRITZKY AR, RAMSDEN CA, ZAKARIA Z, HARLOW RL, SIMONSEN SH. 1980. HETEROCYCLES IN ORGANIC-SYNTHESIS .40. OXIDATION OF 2,4,6-TRIARYLPYRIDINIUM BETAINES AND 2,4,6-TRIARYLPYRIDINIUM PERCHLORATES BY HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 1870-1878. link> doi>
  • CAWKILL E, OLLIS WD, RAMSDEN CA, ROWSON GP. 1979. CYCLIC MESO-IONIC COMPOUNDS .15. SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES, AND CHEMISTRY OF 1,3,4-THIADIAZOLIUM-2-BENZYLIDENEHYDRAZINIDES AND 1,2,4-TRIAZOLIUM-3-BENZYLIDENEHYDRAZINIDES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 724-731. link> doi>
  • HANLEY RN, OLLIS WD, RAMSDEN CA. 1979. CYCLIC MESO-IONIC COMPOUNDS .16. SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES, AND CHEMISTRY OF 1,2,3,4-OXATRIAZOLIUM-5-THIOLATES, 1,2,3,4-THIATRIAZOLIUM-5-OLATES, AND 1,2,3,4-THIATRIAZOLIUM-5-THIOLATES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 732-735. link> doi>
  • HANLEY RN, OLLIS WD, RAMSDEN CA. 1979. CYCLIC MESO-IONIC COMPOUNDS .17. SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES, AND CHEMISTRY OF 1,2,3,4-OXATRIAZOLIUM-5-AMINIDES AND 1,2,3,4-TETRAZOLIUM-5-OLATES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 736-740. link> doi>
  • HANLEY RN, OLLIS WD, RAMSDEN CA. 1979. CYCLIC MESO-IONIC COMPOUNDS .18. SYNTHESIS AND SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF 1,2,3,4-THIATRIAZOLIUM-5-AMINIDES AND 1,2,3,4-TETRAZOLIUM-5-THIOLATES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 741-743. link> doi>
  • HANLEY RN, OLLIS WD, RAMSDEN CA, SMITH IS. 1979. CYCLIC MESO-IONIC COMPOUNDS .19. REACTION OF 5-ETHOXY-1,2,3,4-TETRAZOLIUM AND 5-ETHOXY-1,2,3,4-THIATRIAZOLIUM TETRAFLUOROBORATES WITH NUCLEOPHILES - PREPARATION OF 1,2,3,4-TETRAZOLIUM AND 1,2,3,4-THIATRIAZOLIUM-5-DICYANOMETHYLIDES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 744-746. link> doi>
  • HANLEY RN, OLLIS WD, RAMSDEN CA. 1979. CYCLIC MESO-IONIC COMPOUNDS .20. MASS-SPECTRA OF MESO-IONIC HETEROCYCLES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 747-751. link> doi>
  • KATRITZKY AR, BANERJI A, ELOSTA BS, PARKER IR, RAMSDEN CA. 1979. HETEROCYCLES IN ORGANIC-SYNTHESIS .15. KINETICS OF DISPLACEMENT-REACTIONS WITH PYRIDINES AS BOTH LEAVING GROUP AND NUCLEOPHILE. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 2, 690-693. link> doi>
  • KATRITZKY AR, BAPAT JB, BLADE RJ, LEDDY BP, NIE PL, RAMSDEN CA, THIND SS. 1979. HETEROCYCLES IN ORGANIC-SYNTHESIS .6. NUCLEOPHILIC DISPLACEMENTS OF PRIMARY AMINO-GROUPS VIA 2,4,6-TRIPHENYLPYRIDINIUM SALTS. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 418-425. link> doi>
  • KATRITZKY AR, ABDELMEGEED MF, LHOMMET G, RAMSDEN CA. 1979. HETEROCYCLES IN ORGANIC-SYNTHESIS .7. SYNTHESIS OF FURFURYL DERIVATIVES VIA 2,4,6-TRISUBSTITUTED PYRIDINIUM SALTS. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 426-429. link> doi>
  • KATRITZKY AR, RAMSDEN CA, ZAKARIA Z, HARLOW RL, SIMONSEN SH. 1979. REACTIONS OF PYRIDINIUM SALTS AND PYRIDINIUM BETAINES WITH HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE - NOVEL RING TRANSFORMATIONS TO PYRROLES, BETA-HYDROXYLATION, AND RING-OPENING. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 363-364. link> doi>
  • HANLEY RN, OLLIS WD, RAMSDEN CA, ROWLANDS G, SUTTON LE. 1978. CYCLIC MESOIONIC COMPOUNDS .14. ELECTRIC-DIPOLE MOMENTS OF MESOIONIC HETEROCYCLES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 600-604. link> doi>
  • KATRITZKY AR, KRUTOSIKOVA A, RAMSDEN CA, LEWIS J. 1978. HETEROCYCLES IN ORGANIC-SYNTHESIS .12. STUDIES ON SOME 2,4,6-TRIPHENYLPYRIDINIUM BETAINES AND RELATED SPECIES. COLLECTION OF CZECHOSLOVAK CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 43(8), 2046-2053. link> doi>
  • RAMSDEN CA. 1978. SEMI-EMPIRICAL MO FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTS. CHEMISTRY IN BRITAIN, vol. 14(8), 396-&. link>
  • EWEISS NF, KATRITZKY AR, NIE PL, RAMSDEN CA. 1977. HETEROCYCLES IN ORGANIC-SYNTHESIS .5. CONVERSION OF AMINES INTO IODIDES. SYNTHESIS-STUTTGART, 634-635. link>
  • RAMSDEN CA. 1977. MESOMERIC BETAINE DERIVATIVES OF HETEROPENTALENES. TETRAHEDRON, vol. 33(24), 3203-3232. link>
  • AFRIDI AS, KATRITZKY AR, RAMSDEN CA. 1977. N-OXIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS .56. PREPARATION OF NN'-LINKED BI(HETEROARYLS) FROM DEHYDROACETIC ACID AND 2,6-DIMETHYL-4-PYRONE. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 1428-1436. link> doi>
  • AFRIDI AS, KATRITZKY AR, RAMSDEN CA. 1977. N-OXIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS .57. SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES, AND CHEMISTRY OF 4,6-DIPHENYL-2-PYRIDONES AND 4,6-DIPHENYLPYRIDINE-2-THIONES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO ISOMERIC SPECIES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 1436-1445. link> doi>
  • RAMSDEN CA. 1977. STRUCTURE AND REACTIVITY OF DIPOLAR HETEROCYCLES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 109-110. link> doi>
  • AFRIDI AS, KATRITZKY AR, RAMSDEN CA. 1976. 2-PYRIDONE-PYRAN-2-IMINE AND "PYRIDINE-2-THIONE-THIOPYRAN-2-IMINE SYSTEMS - INTERCONVERSIONS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ISOMERIC SPECIES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 899-900. link> doi>
  • BAPAT JB, BLADE RJ, BOULTON AJ, EPSZTAJN J, KATRITZKY AR, LEWIS J, MOLINABUENDIA P, NIE PL, RAMSDEN CA. 1976. HETEROCYCLES IN ORGANIC-SYNTHESIS .2. PYRIDINES AS LEAVING GROUPS IN SYNTHETIC TRANSFORMATIONS - NUCLEOPHILIC DISPLACEMENTS OF AMINO-GROUPS, AND NOVEL PREPARATIONS OF NITRILES AND ISOCYANATES. TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, 2691-2694. link>
  • AFRIDI AS, KATRITZKY AR, RAMSDEN CA. 1976. HETEROCYCLIC REARRANGEMENTS .14. ATTEMPTS TO ACTIVATE RING-OPENING-RING-CLOSURE REARRANGEMENTS WITH CARBON AS CENTRAL ATOM. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 315-320. link> doi>
  • CAWKILL E, OLLIS WD, RAMSDEN CA, ROWSON GP. 1976. MESO-IONIC 1,3,4-THIADIAZOLIUM AND 1,3,4-TRIAZOLIUM-2-BENZYLIDENEHYDRAZINIDES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 439-440. link> doi>
  • HANLEY RN, OLLIS WD, RAMSDEN CA. 1976. SYNTHESIS OF 3 NEW MESO-IONIC HETEROCYCLIC-SYSTEMS. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 306-307. link> doi>
  • HANLEY RN, OLLIS WD, RAMSDEN CA. 1976. SYNTHESIS OF 4 NEW MESO-IONIC HETEROCYCLIC-SYSTEMS. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 307-308. link> doi>
  • DEWAR MJS, LO DH, RAMSDEN CA. 1975. GROUND-STATES OF MOLECULES .29. MINDO-3 CALCULATIONS OF COMPOUNDS CONTAINING THIRD ROW ELEMENTS. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 97(6), 1311-1318. link> doi>
  • OLLIS WD and RAMSDEN CA. 1974. CYCLIC MESO-IONIC COMPOUNDS .10. SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES, AND CHEMISTRY OF 1,3,4-THIADIAZOLIUM-2-AMINIDES AND THEIR REARRANGEMENT TO 1,3,4-TRIAZOLIUM-2-THIOLATES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 633-638. link> doi>
  • OLLIS WD and RAMSDEN CA. 1974. CYCLIC MESO-IONIC COMPOUNDS .11. SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES, AND CHEMISTRY OF 1,3,4-TRIAZOLIUM-2-AMINIDES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 638-642. link> doi>
  • OLLIS WD and RAMSDEN CA. 1974. CYCLIC MESO-IONIC COMPOUNDS .12. SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES, AND CHEMISTRY OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLIUM-2-AMINIDES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 642-645. link> doi>
  • OLLIS WD and RAMSDEN CA. 1974. CYCLIC MESO-IONIC COMPOUNDS .13. MASS-SPECTRA OF MESO-IONIC HETEROCYCLES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 645-650. link> doi>
  • MCCARTY AR, OLLIS WD, RAMSDEN CA. 1974. CYCLIC MESO-IONIC COMPOUNDS .8. 1,3-DIPOLAR CYCLOADDITION REACTIONS OF ISOSYDNONES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 624-627. link> doi>
  • MCCARTHY AR, OLLIS WD, RAMSDEN CA. 1974. CYCLIC MESO-IONIC COMPOUNDS .9. SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES, AND CHEMISTRY OF 1,3,4-THIADIAZOLIUM-2-OLATES AND 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLIUM-2-THIOLATES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 627-632. link> doi>
  • DEWAR MJS and RAMSDEN CA. 1974. STEVENS REARRANGEMENT - ANTIAROMATIC PERICYCLIC REACTION. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1, 1839-1844. link> doi>
  • DEWAR MJS and RAMSDEN CA. 1973. MINDO-3 AND NDDO STUDY OF ANTIAROMATIC 3-MEMBERED RINGS AND THEIR VALENCE TAUTOMERS. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 688-689. link> doi>
  • OLLIS WD and RAMSDEN CA. 1971. SYNTHESIS AND ISOMERISATION OF MESO-IONIC ANHYDRO-2-ARYLAMINO-1,3,4 TRIAZOLIUM HYDROXIDES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY D-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 1224-&. link> doi>
  • OLLIS WD and RAMSDEN CA. 1971. SYNTHESIS OF MESO-IONIC ANHYDRO-2-ARYLAMINO-1,3,4-OXADIAZOLIUM HYDROXIDES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY D-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 1223-&. link> doi>
  • OLLIS WD and RAMSDEN CA. 1971. SYNTHESIS OF MESO-IONIC ANHYDRO-2-ARYLAMINO-1,3,4-THIADIAZOLIUM HYDROXIDES AND REARRANGEMENT OF MESO-IONIC 1,3,4-THIADIAZOLES TO MESO-IONOIC 1,3,4-TRIAZOLES. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY D-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 1222-&. link> doi>

Chapters

  • Ramsden CA. 2008. Bicyclic 5-6 Systems: Six and Seven Heteroatoms. In Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III, Vol. 10. Elsevier.
  • Ramsden CA. 2007. Arylphosphine oxides. In Science of Synthesis. (vol. Vol. 31b). Georg Thieme Verlag KG.
  • Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA. 2004. Quinone Chemistry and Melanogenesis. In Methods in Enzymology. Sies H and Packer L (Eds.). Elsevier Academic Press, California, USA. doi>

Other

  • Ramsden CA. 1999. Studies using hypervalent reagents of Te, I and Xe: A heterocyclic betaine saga. JOURNAL OF HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY (vol. 36, pp. 1573-1579). link> doi>
  • Benckova M, Krutosikova A, Sleziak R, RAmsden CA. 1997. Synthesis of new heterocyclic amidines. CHEMICKE LISTY (vol. 91, pp. 655-656). link>
  • Ramsden CA. 1995. 5-Aminoimidazole chemistry. KHIMIYA GETEROTSIKLICHESKIKH SOEDINENII (pp. 1323-1331). link>

Year 1

  • CHE-10014 - Inventions and Society
  • CHE-10002 - Basic Organic Chemistry (Module Leader)
  • CHE-10026 - Basic Organic Chemistry for Life Sciences (Module Leader)
  • PHA-10010 - Pharmaceutical Chemistry
  • PHA-10011 - Drug Discovery and Use

Year 2

  • CHE-20005 - Drug Design Based on Biological Targets (Module Leader)

Year 3

  • CHE-30006 - Synthesis Kinetics and Mechanism
  • CHE-30007 - Medicinal and Biomolecular Chemistry (Module Leader)
  • CHE-30008 - Organic Radicals