Education and Training
White Paper on Higher Education. Recommended expansion of student
Parents’ Charter. Gives parents the right to information
about the school and its performance (updated in 1994).
Employment Department began to pilot Training Credits
or Youth Credits.
Polytechnics of the 1960s granted university status.
Further and Higher Education Act. Removed FE and 6th Form Colleges
from local authority control and established FEFC. Imposes duty
on every FEFC to provide full- and part-time education for young
people up to the age of 19.
Further and Higher Education (Scotland) Act. See E&W
Education Act (now consolidated in 1996 Act). Biggest ever
piece of education legislation, which led to expansion of grant-maintained
Parents’ rights in special needs assessments extended.
General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs) introduced
Adult training programmes Employment Training and Employment Action
replaced by Training for Work.
Learning for Work introduced as a fixed-term programme
lasting one year providing opportunities for those who had been
out of work for 6 months or more to pursue vocational studies to
help them back into work, particularly those who would not otherwise
be able to undertake vocational studies, perhaps because they are
unable to obtain funding for course fees or living expenses. Participants
had fees and some allowances paid. (Now ceased).
Code of Practice on the Identification and Assessment of Special
Educational Needs came into force, formulating a Transition
Plan (at 14+ annual review) for young people with disabilities and
special educational needs who have a statement of their special
Modern Apprenticeships piloted.
Accelerated Modern Apprenticeships announced.
Specially designed for young people aged 18 or 19 at entry, and
to run for 18 months rather than the normal 2½-3 years.
FEFC stopped allocating funds according to whether a particular
course was full-time or part-time. The funding level is now determined
by the nature of the qualification sought.
DTI White Paper on Competitiveness. Proposed changes that could
lead to a clearer division between academic and vocational tracks
from age 14.
Minimum YT allowance set at less than Income Support for
16/17 year-olds living away from home.
Youth Credits introduced in all areas of England and most
of Wales and Scotland, name YT dropped.
Modern Apprenticeships introduced as quality training
on a work-based route with a fast track to NVQ Level 3, also with
the intention that apprentices would have employee status.
Dearing Report Review and Qualifications for 16-19 Year-olds
recommended the introduction of National Traineeships as a high
quality, work-based option for school leavers and employers, building
on the design features of Modern Apprenticeships but focused on
achieving NVQ Level 2. White Paper Learning to Compete set out a
new Learning Credits entitlement for young people to enter
education and training to NVQ Level 3 up to the age of 21, but no
corresponding entitlement to financial support was proposed.
Education Act. Consolidated all Education Acts concerning
schools since 1944. Under the legislation for a National Curriculum
children are entitled to an education which is broad and balanced
and which should prepare them for FE and training or the job market.
Defines compulsory school starting age of 5 years, as amended by
the Education Act 1997 (not yet in force). Restates principle that
pupils are to be educated in accordance with the wishes of their
parents, and provides for parental choice of school. §509 sets out
the duties of LEAs as regards home to school/college transport provision
for post-16s. §47 requires LEAs to make arrangements for the provision
of suitable education at schools or otherwise for children of compulsory
school age who might not receive a suitable education for reasons
such as illness or exclusion.
Jobseekers Act. The number of hours for which a student
could study without losing their entitlement to JSA benefit was
reduced from 21 ‘supervised’ hours to 16 ‘guided learning’ hours.
The hours regulation was now limited to staff-supervised learning,
and excluded time spent in private study, provided students remained
available for, and sought, work). Young people on Bridging Allowance
can apply for a Secretary of State’s Direction enabling them to
be considered for JSA if they can show that they would otherwise
suffer severe hardship.
Report by the Commission on Public Policy and British Business (CPBB)
published. Promoting Prosperity: a Business Agenda for Britain argued
for a flexible, skilled labour force and identified poor education
and training as responsible for unemployment.