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youth policies in the UK: a chronological map aboutsearchhome

Education and Training

1980-1990

1980
White Paper A New Training Initiative: A Programme for Action (Cm. 8455). Norman Tebbit set out first plans for youth training scheme (YTS). Originally aimed at unemployed young people in their first year after leaving school, bringing them into a situation akin to those who went on at that age to Further Education. 

Education (Scotland) Act. Scottish equivalent of 1962 Act. Places parents under a legal duty to ensure that their children receive a suitable education until they reach 16. 

Education Act. Parents able to express a preference for the school of their choice.

YOP expanded. Jim Prior describes it as a ‘new deal’ for young people. 

1981
Employment and Training Act
. Abolished Employment Service Agency and Training Services Agency.

1982
Employment and Training Act
. Removed Trade Unions from decisions relating to the costs of training on employers.

Industrial Training Act. Set up a regulatory framework in respect of industrial training boards. 

Opportunities for Volunteering Scheme run by Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS); Voluntary Projects Programme set up by MSC. 

Technical and Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI) launched. Aimed to stimulate TVE for 14-18 year-olds, administered by MSC. 

1983
One year Youth Training Scheme (YTS) introduced. Government suggested that TVEI courses from age 14 might dovetail with YTS to create integrated vocational routes for a group of 14-18 year-olds. 

1985
Green Paper Education and Training for Young People (Cm. 9482) announces a major expansion of YTS from April 1986 - to ‘constitute a major step towards ensuring that unemployment among young people becomes a thing of the past’. 

1986
NVQ
s announced.

 YTS extended to two years and allowance fixed at £35.00 for 17 year-olds. No housing cost element included. 

1987
White Paper on Higher Education published. 

1988
Education Reform Act
. Restated the functions of LEAs in respect of Further and Higher Education. Introduced the National Curriculum intended to be in operation in all schools (E&W) by September 1992. This was a common curriculum for all 5-16 year-olds and there was no division (see 1983 proposals) of pupils into separate academic and vocational tracks. Established open enrolment and a right to appeal if a child is not given a place at a school. Schools required to provide information about the child’s work. Parents have the right to vote a school out of local authority control. The Act provided for greater delegation of budgets to newly constituted governing bodies for FE colleges that from 1989 became corporate bodies. 

White Paper Top-Up Loans for Students published. 

Employment Act. Introduced Bridging Allowance for young people waiting to take up YTS place, or who had become unemployed after starting YTS or a job, and were registered with Careers Service or Job Centre. MSC renamed the Training Commission. 

Social Security Act. 16/17 year-olds required to register for YTS. 

Youth Training Guarantee introduced. No 16/17 year-olds to be without education, employment or training. 

Tax covenants between individuals were abolished. These had previously made up part of the system of financial support from parents to children (each child had a personal allowance, therefore they could be covenanted up to the amount of that allowance and neither the donor or recipient attracted tax - the young person had to be 18 or less than 18 and married). 

1989
Employment Act
. Dissolved Training Commission. 

1990
Education (Student Loans) Act
. ‘Top-up’ loans introduced for HE students. 

Withdrawal of Housing Benefit from HE students. 

YTS renamed Youth Training. Allowances unchanged. 

House of Lords Select Committee on the European Communities recommended that legislation should be introduced to ensure that all 16-18 year-olds are provided with education or training.