Education and Training
White Paper A New Training Initiative: A Programme for
Action (Cm. 8455). Norman Tebbit set out first plans for youth
training scheme (YTS). Originally aimed at unemployed young people
in their first year after leaving school, bringing them into a situation
akin to those who went on at that age to Further Education.
Education (Scotland) Act. Scottish equivalent of 1962
Act. Places parents under a legal duty to ensure that their children
receive a suitable education until they reach 16.
Education Act. Parents able to express a preference for
the school of their choice.
YOP expanded. Jim Prior describes it as a ‘new deal’ for
Employment and Training Act. Abolished Employment Service Agency
and Training Services Agency.
Employment and Training Act. Removed Trade Unions from decisions
relating to the costs of training on employers.
Industrial Training Act. Set up a regulatory framework
in respect of industrial training boards.
Opportunities for Volunteering Scheme run by Department
of Health and Social Security (DHSS); Voluntary Projects Programme
set up by MSC.
Technical and Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI) launched.
Aimed to stimulate TVE for 14-18 year-olds, administered by MSC.
One year Youth Training Scheme (YTS) introduced. Government
suggested that TVEI courses from age 14 might dovetail with YTS
to create integrated vocational routes for a group of 14-18 year-olds.
Green Paper Education and Training for Young People (Cm.
9482) announces a major expansion of YTS from April 1986 - to ‘constitute
a major step towards ensuring that unemployment among young people
becomes a thing of the past’.
YTS extended to two years and allowance fixed at
£35.00 for 17 year-olds. No housing cost element included.
White Paper on Higher Education published.
Education Reform Act. Restated the functions of LEAs in respect
of Further and Higher Education. Introduced the National Curriculum
intended to be in operation in all schools (E&W) by September
1992. This was a common curriculum for all 5-16 year-olds and there
was no division (see 1983 proposals) of pupils into separate academic
and vocational tracks. Established open enrolment and a right to
appeal if a child is not given a place at a school. Schools required
to provide information about the child’s work. Parents have the
right to vote a school out of local authority control. The Act provided
for greater delegation of budgets to newly constituted governing
bodies for FE colleges that from 1989 became corporate bodies.
White Paper Top-Up Loans for Students published.
Employment Act. Introduced Bridging Allowance for young
people waiting to take up YTS place, or who had become unemployed
after starting YTS or a job, and were registered with Careers Service
or Job Centre. MSC renamed the Training Commission.
Social Security Act. 16/17 year-olds required to register
Youth Training Guarantee introduced. No 16/17 year-olds
to be without education, employment or training.
Tax covenants between individuals were abolished. These
had previously made up part of the system of financial support from
parents to children (each child had a personal allowance, therefore
they could be covenanted up to the amount of that allowance and
neither the donor or recipient attracted tax - the young person
had to be 18 or less than 18 and married).
Employment Act. Dissolved Training Commission.
Education (Student Loans) Act. ‘Top-up’ loans introduced for
Withdrawal of Housing Benefit from HE students.
YTS renamed Youth Training. Allowances unchanged.
House of Lords Select Committee on the European Communities recommended
that legislation should be introduced to ensure that all 16-18 year-olds
are provided with education or training.